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Full text of "Annual Report of the Director of the National Park Service"

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ANNUAL REPORT 

of the DIRECTOR 

NA TIONAL PARK SER VICE 

to the 

SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



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Reprinted from the 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

OF THE INTERIOR 

For the Fiscal Tear Ended June 30, 1958 




NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

Conrad L. Wirth, Director 



HE YEAR 1958 for the National Park Service and the National 

ark System was marked by an unusual record of progress and ac- 

omplishment. In its second year, Mission 66 remained essentially 

n schedule, and with new and improved facilities and services com- 

lg rapidly into evidence, public approval and acclaim of this 

ynamic conservation and development program rose to new heights. 

At least a part of this widespread approval was due to the emerg- 

g realization on the part of the American people that, despite the 

irge-scale development of new and improved visitor facilities, the 

lission 66 program actually is applying even more emphasis to the 

^reservation undisturbed of the great wilderness areas of the national 

>arks and monuments. As work on Mission 66 projects advanced it 

iecame more clearly evident to proponents of park conservation that 

he vast wilderness areas — as well as the sense of undisturbed wilder- 

less essential to the full enjoyment of even the most visited parts of a 

lational park — were being treated as a priceless resource to be zeal- 

msly safeguarded and preserved. 

During the 12-month period a total of $65,701,300 was expended or 
bligated for some 736 construction projects, including new and im- 
proved campsites and visitor centers. At the same time private 
capital invested more than $5,500,000 in the construction of public 
iccommodations and related service facilities, increasing overnight 
capacities by approximately 1,800. 

One of the most dramatic examples of the economy, efficiency, and 
idequacy of the Mission 66 approach to meeting the expanding needs 
)f park improvement was provided by the Canyon Village develop- 
nent in Yellowstone National Park. There a new lodge, cabins, 
campgrounds, trailer court, visitor center and museum, store, service 
station, and other facilities were completed and in use at the end of 
he fiscal year. Completion of that project not only made overnight 

281 



282 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

accommodations available for nearly 4,000 visitors but also will make 
it possible to raze the old lodges and cabins from the rim of the Grand 
Canyon of the Yellowstone and begin the esthetically vital work of 
restoration and preservation there. 

Similar projects — also designed to meet the needs of the ever- 
increasing numbers of park visitors — were completed at Colter Bay 
in Grand Teton National Park, in the Mather area of Grand Canyon 
National Park, and at Flamingo in Everglades National Park. 

Other highlights of Mission 66 accomplishments during the fiscal 
year included completion of the Dinosaur Visitor Center; the com- 
pleted development of Jamestown Island, Colonial Parkway, and 
Yorktown for full use during the year-long celebration of the 350th 
anniversary of the landing of the Jamestown colonists ; completion of 
Stevens Canyon road in Mount Rainier, the East Side road in Grand 
Teton, and the Park Road in Everglades National Park; and the 
launching of the Ranger III, passenger boat to serve Isle Royale 
National Park. 

In the last 3 months of the fiscal year added impetus was given to 
the program when contracting for new work was speeded up as part 
of the Administration's anti-recession program. During that period 
contracts amounting to almost $34 million were let for work on roads, 
parkways, buildings, and other facilities. 

One of the essential elements in the carrying forward of the work 
of Mission 66 is a broad and comprehensive legislative program. 
Under guidance of the Administration and the Department through- 
out fiscal year 1958, coordination and direction were provided by the 
National Park Service for such a program with notable results in the 
form of congressional action. For example, after many years an ac- 
ceptable boundary was fixed for Everglades National Park. Ex- 
change authority was obtained through which private lands in Olym- 
pic National Park may be acquired. The establishment of Fort 
Clatsop National Memorial was authorized to commemorate the suc- 
cessful crossing of the continent by the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 
and National Park status was made possible for Petrified Forest Na- 
tional Monument. 

Meanwhile other legislation pending in Congress at the end of the 
fiscal year would authorize establishment of national parks on Cape 
Cod, Mass., and Padre Island, Tex. ; preservation of an undeveloped 
stretch of the Indiana Dunes on the shore of Lake Michigan as s 
national monument; transfer of Grant's Tomb in New York Citj 
to Federal ownership as a national memorial ; and creation of a Granc 
Portage National Monument in Minnesota. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 283 

Surveys of Pacific Coast and Great Lakes Shoreline 

During the fiscal year marked progress was made on the shoreline 
surveys financed by donated funds. The master report for the Pa- 
ine Coast Seashore Survey was completed, with summary analysis 
of 75 areas. Separate reports were prepared for 7 coastal areas of 
najor importance of which 3 have been given favorable consideration 
for national status by the Advisory Board on National Parks, His- 
toric Sites, Buildings, and Monuments. 

Field work for the recreation resource survey of the Great Lakes 
shoreline was largely completed, and the final report is scheduled to 
^o to press by December 31. Reports have been prepared on 48 areas. 

National Survey of Outdoor Recreation Resources 

Work was initiated on a national inventory of existing parks and 
recreation areas and their facilities and of potential areas suitable 
for administration at various levels of government. The results of 
this inventory will be made available to the National Outdoor Recre- 
ation Resources Review Commission, established by congressional act 
in June 1958. 

Historic Surveys Resumed 

Two historical survey programs, begun in the 1930's but suspended 
since the beginning of World War II, were resumed during the fiscal 
year. One is the National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings. 
In this program the history of this country has been divided into a 
total of 21 themes, each theme covering a specific segment of history 
and pre-history on the continent, Work was started during the fiscal 
year on preparation of reports on historic sites and buildings of five 
of these periods of history. The second survey program resumed 
was the Historic American Building Survey. Through the student 
assistance program measured drawings were completed for many his- 
toric buildings not previously included in the survey. Drawings 
were finished on partially completed surveys remaining after sus- 
pension of the work in 1941. 

Park Attendance 

The upward curve in park attendance continued, though the rate 
of increase receded somewhat below the past 10-year cycle. In the 
calendar year 1957 there were 59,285,000 visitors, an increase of 7.9 
percent over the 54,923,000 total recorded in 1956. 



*•»* 



CAMPFIRE TALK. — Scenes of the National Parks and explanations of theii 
scientific and historic wonders are unfolded by a National Park ranger at ar 
illustrated campfire talk in Badlands National Monument. Mission 66 has 
enabled the Park Service to recruit more rangers and to expand its interpre 
tive service to park visitors. National Park Service Photo. 



Land Acquisition 

During fiscal year 1958 a total of $1,889,650 was made available foi 
land acquisition, including $400,500 from donations. Some 25,49£ 
acres of inholdings were acquired by purchase, donation, and exchange 
for addition to 26 areas of the National Park System. Transfer oi 
Federal lands added 256.19 acres to two areas. 

Donations of lands included 367 acres from the Territory of Hawai: 
for Hawaii National Park ; 2,261 acres from the State of North Caro 
lina for Blue Kidge Parkway ; 1,540 acres from the State of Tennessee 
and 63 acres from the State of Mississippi for Natchez Trace Park- 
way ; 7.5 acres from the State of South Dakota for Mount Rushmor< 
National Memorial ; and 5.6 acres from the City of Richmond for Rich 
mond National Battlefield Park. Other donations of lands by individ 
uals added significant acreages to Acadia National Park, Blue Ridg< 
Parkway, Colonial National Historical Park, Death Valley and Effigy 
Mounds National Monuments, Fort Caroline National Memorial, an( 
Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park. 

Approximately 160 options were approved for acquisition of abou 
6,580 acres of land and interests in lands in 20 areas. Ten options, to 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 285 

taling $222,675 and covering 853.91 acres of land in six areas of the 
National Park System were processed for use with 1959 fiscal year land 
Acquisition funds. 

Concession Authorizations 

Seven concession contracts were negotiated during the year. These 
called for construction programs at Mount McKinley and Grand Teton 
National Parks, and Blue Ridge Parkway, representing investments 
)f about $645,600. 

Training Center 

Both staff increases as Mission 66 progresses, and earlier retirements 
3ecause of liberalized retirement legislation, have made it vitally nec- 
essary that new park rangers, historians, naturalists, and archeologists 
become soundly grounded early in their careers in Park Service history, 
Dolicies, and practices This requirement was recognized by the Con- 
gress in fiscal year 1957 when it approved the establishment of a traili- 
ng center for career-conditional uniformed employees at Yosemite Na- 
;ional Park on a 3-year trial basis. During the past year this new in- 
stitution conducted its first two intensive 3-month training courses. 
Each course enrolled 25 trainees, who received basic information and 
skills training in protection, interpretation, and visitor services, and 
is a result were considerably better qualified for their duties. 

Special Observances 

The outstanding celebration of the year was the Jamestown, Wil- 
iamsburg, Yorktown celebration commemorating the 350th anniver- 
sary of the founding of the first permanent English settlement in 
:he New World at Jamestown in 1607, the flowering of Virginia cul- 
:ure and statesmanship at Williamsburg on the eve of and during the 
Revolution, and the final winning of American independence at 
Yorktown, Va., in 1781. The celebration was marked by the opening 
)f new National Park Service visitor centers and museums at James- 
gown and Yorktown, by the visit of Queen Elizabeth II and many 
Ither distinguished visitors to Jamestown and Williamsburg, and by 
he reenactment of the siege of Yorktown and the surrender of Corn- 
ivallis at Yorktown on October 19. The State of Virginia cooperated 
jy building replicas of the three ships that brought the first colonists 
'o Jamestown and by reconstructing a full-scale likeness of James 
Fort at Glasshouse Point. The Jamestown Glasshouse Foundation, 
[nc, representing the American glassworkers and glass industry, re- 



286 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

constructed and operated the Jamestown Glasshouse of 1608, one of 
the high points of interest of the entire celebration. 

Secretary Fred A. Seaton was the principal speaker at the 34th 
annual establishment day celebration June 1 in Craters of the Moon 
National Monument, Idaho. Dedication of the new visitor center 
was a significant part of that celebration. 

Assistant Secretary Roger C. Ernst was the principal speaker at 
the dedication June 1 of the new visitor center in Dinosaur National 
Monument, Utah and Colorado. 

Mountain Climbing 

For the third successive year the peak of Mount McKinley, Mount 
McKinley National Park, Alaska, remained unclimbed. Unlike pre- 
vious years, Nature imposed a new obstacle which consisted of the 
spectacular movement of the Muldrow Glacier during the winter of 
1956-57. This tremendous ice movement resulted in several large ice 
waves moving downward, erecting great seracs and an impasse for 
climbers using the conventional route. A party of eight climbers was 
turned back after spending 17 days on their attempted climb. 
Highest elevation reached was 8,500 feet, considerably less than half 
of the peak altitude of 20,320 feet. 

Vandalism 

One of the historic structures in the Death Valley area was de- 
stroyed during the year when vandals removed the evaporating vat 
and stack of the Eagle Borax Works. This was the first commercial 
effort to produce borax in Death Valley and the works was con- 
structed in 1881 by Isadore Daunet. The vats were hauled nearly 300 
miles across the desert, by wagons, from Los Angeles. Although the 
venture was not successful financially and closed down 1 year later 
it represented the spirit and physical effort that the early pioneers 
exerted to develop the mining industry. 

Launching of Ranger III 

Ranger III, the new 100-passenger motor vessel that will provide 
passenger-cargo service to Isle Roy ale National Park, Mich., from 
Houghton, Mich., was christened and launched in special ceremonies 
at Sturgeon Bay, Wis., on June 21, 1958. The celebration was spon- 
sored by the firm that constructed the boat under a $1,159,680 
National Park Service contract. 

Ranger III was scheduled to be placed in operation in fiscal year 
1959, at w T hich time the scenic beauty of Isle Royale National Park 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 287 

will become more accessible to greater numbers of visitors. Trans- 
portation to the park in past seasons has been limited to a 16-passenger 
Doat operated by the Park Service out of Houghton, Mich., and to 
privately owned vessels out of Grand Portage, Minn., and Copper 
Harbor, Mich. Service from the latter two points will continue. The 
new boat will make the 75-mile trip from the Michigan mainland to 
the park in approximately 5 hours as compared with the 7 hours re- 
quired in the past. 

Construction of the new vessel is one of a number of projects for 
development of the park under the Mission 66 program. Isle Royale 
National Park, containing more than 800 square miles of land and 
water, consists of some 200 islands in Lake Superior. Isle Royale, 
the largest, contains about 210 square miles. 

PROGRESS ON MISSION 66 

It has now become impossible to separate Mission 66 from the 
total National Park program. During the planning stage Mission 66 
had an identity of its own. Today it is so integrated with the overall 
Service program that the words Mission 66 simply mean a total 
National Park program, full-scope, fast-moving, and conducted on a 
larger scale than ever before. 

Thus all elements of the original Mission 66 plan, described in de- 
tail elsewhere in this report, demonstrated renewed and expanded 
activity. Numerous legislative matters in support of individual area 
Mission 66 programs were submitted to Congress. 

With all prospectuses completed and approved, except for a few 
special cases, Mission 66 staff work in support of the overall program 
focused upon special problems and upon the improvement of the 
efficiency of the internal operations of the Service. Special studies of 
Yosemite Valley, Mesa Verde National Park, and National Capital 
Parks, were undertaken leading toward the solution of complex pro- 
tection, use, and development problems. Studies were well advanced 
in the development of an improved organizational structure for the 
Service, and in the clarification and strengthening of the instruments 
of planning and administrative control. 

New positions in the field service were filled, resulting in an im- 
mediate improvement of public services, a stronger defense and attack 
against forest fire, forest pests, and other destructive agents, and more 
adequate maintenance of park facilities. 

In an attempt to attract a higher quality of new recruits in the in- 
creasingly competitive field of park planning, park administration, 
protection, and interpretation, booklets describing the employment 
opportunities in the National Park System were prepared and will be 
issued in time for next year's recruitment season. 

498491 O -59 -2 



288 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

In the field of public information, in addition to numerous press re- 
leases and the release of the fourth of a series of tape-recorded slide- 
illustrated programs on Mission 66, the Staff prepared and released a 
leaflet Mission 66 in Action reporting the first year of progress, and 
an illustrated brochure entitled The National Park Wilderness. Both 
publications were published through the generosity of the Jackson 
Hole Preserve, Inc. The latter publication defines the protection and 
preservation responsibilities of the Service, reviews the record of the 
past, and points out how these responsibilities will continue to be met 
in the future under the Mission 66 program. This publication is re- 
garded by the Service as a very important interpretation of wilderness 
preservation policy for the guidance of the Service, as well as for the 
information of the general public. 

INTERPRETATION 

The National Park Service, through its various interpretive pro- 
grams, makes a substantial contribution to the conservation movement 
in America. Through interpretation, park visitors gain understand- 
ing of nature's workings and of our country's history. Knowledge of 
nature and the past promotes thoughtful consideration of the present 
and the future. Through this understanding and consideration the 
cause of conservation is served. 

It is seldom realized what a potent force the parks and monuments 
are in the teaching of conservation. The millions who participate in 
the interpretive programs learn the lessons of conservation in the best 
possible setting. Fortunately, through Mission 66, the interpretive 
programs are developing rapidly to meet the ever-increasing demands 
for such services in the areas of the National Park System. 

Services to Public 

The steady increase in the number of visitors receiving interpretive 
services was continued during the year. In every category of inter- 
pretive services the number of park visitors served was greater than in 
previous years. In the calendar year 1957 the number of visitors who 
participated in trips conducted by naturalists and historians rose to 
2,404,474. Nearly seven and a half million persons heard talks given 
by Park Service personnel and more than 25,000,000 were assisted by 
various forms of self -guiding devices. While all of these figures rep- 
resented substantial visitor participation increases throughout the 
park areas, the greatest increase occurred in the number of talks given 
and attendance at the talks in historical-archeological areas. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 289 

Visitor Centers 

A vital element of the park interpretive programs is the visitor 
center. It represents the hub of interpretive and informational serv- 
ices for that part of the park where it is located. In the visitor center 
the park visitor learns what to do and what to see. Exhibits explain 
the features or events that make the park of national significance. 

During the fiscal year a total of eight new visitor centers were com- 
pleted and opened to the public; 18 others were in various stages of 
construction, and plans were in preparation for still others. 

Using a variety of media, each visitor center is designed to tell 
those parts of the park story which can best be treated at a central 
location. Colorful panels, models, specimens, dioramas, and audio- 
visual devices are skillfully employed to tell the story in an accurate 
and interesting manner. 

A unique exhibit is found in the newly completed visitor center 
at Dinosaur National Monument. The story told here is about 
dinosaurs and their world, but visitors are also interested in watching 
men work in the fossil quarry. Consequently, almost every day a 
paleontologist and his crew may be found at work there. At no 
other place in the world can a park visitor have the thrilling experi- 
ence of watching men uncover the fossil bones of long extinct 
animals. 

Roadside and Trailside Interpretation 

The introduction given the visitor to the park areas by the new 
visitor centers was supplemented in 1958 by a new approach to the 
development of more effective roadside and trailside interpretive 
facilities. 

Teams were established to work together in planning the roadside 
and trailside exhibits and signs so that these devices would be care- 
fully coordinated with other interpretive facilities of the parks. 
These teams included a park interpreter, a landscape architect, and a 
representative of the Museums Exhibit Planning Teams. 

Results of their work can be seen in the roadside interpretative 
plans completed, typical of which were those for the Flamingo Road, 
Everglades National Park, and in the Richmond National Battle- 
field Park. Work was well advanced on a number of other similar 
projects. 

Audio-Visual Planning and Installation 

Significant further progress was made during the year in the use 
of audio-visual equipment to supplement personal interpretive serv- 



290 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

ices for visitors in the parks. With the assistance of the Audio-Visual 
Committee, the Chief Naturalist gave special attention to a program 
for coordination of audio-visual planning and installation with new 
building projects. Emphasis also was placed on acquainting equip- 
ment manufacturers with Park Service interpretive programs, and 
on the accomplishment of major installations by contract. Signifi- 
cant among contract installations were the fully automatic slide 
projectors with synchronized sound installed in the two new visitor 
centers at Colonial National Historical Park. 

Museum Program 

The Western Museum Laboratory, which had been closed at the 
approach of World War II, was reestablished in San Francisco in 
the old United States Mint Building. Like the Eastern Museum 
Laboratory in Washington, it builds exhibits for the new facilities 
being constructed under Mission 66. Its first assignment was the 
preparation of exhibits for the Quarry Visitor Center, Dinosaur Na- 
tional Monument. 



NEW JAMESTOWN VISITOR CENTER.— This new structure on the grounds 
of historic Jamestown Island was completed under the Mission 66 program 
in time for the 1957 celebration of the 350th anniversary of the first permanent 
English colony's founding in America. Hundreds of thousands of visitors 
came to the new center for information during the year. 




NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 291 

At the same time, during the year, the Eastern Museum Labora- 
tory completed new exhibits for a total of 10 park areas, and con- 
struction was under way on exhibits for 14 additional areas. 

In addition, the Museum Planning Teams attached to the Eastern 
and Western Laboratories assisted park areas with museum planning 
programs and with preservation of their collections. 

Of significance during the year was a revision of the National Park 
Service museum records system, designed to preserve more efficiently 
the scientific and historical collections in its care. As a part of the 
new program, each region appointed a museum curator to assist park 
staffs in bringing records up to date and work on the revising and up- 
dating of records was gotten under way in more than three -fourths of 
the parks. A Museum Records Handbook was issued, and hundreds 
of valuable museum specimens were added to accountability records. 
At the same time, considerable progress was made in bringing acces- 
sion records up to date. At the close of the fiscal year, the detailed 
cataloging of individual specimens was in progress in many park areas. 

Research 

The research program was widened and accelerated during the fis- 
cal year, with a number of significant and tangible results. A project 
was inaugurated at Harpers Ferry National Monument to collect and 
collate all available data on the appearance and history of the town, 
the armory, and the arsenal. Archeological and historical investiga- 
tions begun in 1957 at Fort McHenry National Monument continued 
through 1958. Archeological and historical salvage operations con- 
tinued in many of the major reservoir areas throughout the United 
States. A new archeological salvage program was inaugurated in 
the Upper Colorado River Basin where many heretofore unknown 
archeological sites were found in the Glen Canyon Reservoir and 
Navajo Indian Reservoir areas. 

Important progress was made in the restoration of Independence 
Hall, with the removal of mucli paint from interior and exterior 
woodwork and the repair of exposed areas. In this connection, archi- 
tectural investigation of the Tower Room produced valuable knowl- 
edge about the original carvings of the 1750's. 

In natural history, a broad spectrum of studies was carried on. A 
research conference in Everglades outlined needed studies and several 
were gotten under way. Continuous studies of Blue Glacier in 
Olympic were effected. Detailed studies were made of Yellowstone 
thermal areas and Mammoth Cave siltation. A program of Alpine 
Wilderness research was initiated, as was a similar project of research 
on the biology of the United States Virgin Islands. 



292 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Wildlife 

A significant advance in the conduct of basic wildlife research in 
the National Park System was made during the fiscal year. The 
Division of Interpretation was given specific responsibilities for 
developing the biological research program by stepping up Service- 
conducted investigations and encouraging cooperative research by 
qualified scientists and established research institutions. Similarly, 
the Division of Ranger Activities was given specific and increased 
responsibilities for the protection and management of biological re- 
sources. Coordination of these activities will provide the greater 
attention required if the fish and wildlife and other animals of the 
National Park System are to be adequately preserved for public 
enjoyment. 

INFORMATION AND PUBLICATIONS 

As park visitation set new records and the Mission 66 program 
moved into high gear, public interest in the National Park System 
was reflected in an unprecedented demand for factual reports and 
publications dealing with the 180 areas of the System. 

To meet this demand the Service produced some 12,000,000 free 
informational publications for distribution in the parks and to re- 
spond to inquiries from all over the United States and many foreign 
lands. The Washington Office alone responded to 55,000 inquiries for 
information. 

Supplementing the free informational program was the publication 
of handbooks on the historical significance and natural history of 
park areas, and the scientific findings of researchers in the parks. 
During the year four new handbooks — Theodore Koosevelt and the 
Badlands, Dinosaur Quarry, Scotts Bluff, and Montezuma Castle — 
were added to the series and the Hopewell Village Historical Hand- 
book was revised. These handbooks are sold by the Superintendent 
of Documents for a modest price. During the year nearly 500,000 
Park Service publications were sold. 

The informational program was strengthened during the year by 
the assignment of Regional Publications Officers to each of the five 
Regional Offices with the primary assignment of improving the qual- 
ity and timeliness of service publications. 

The public was kept informed of the progress of Mission 66 
through releases issued by the Washington Office concerning events 
of national interest. Park Superintendents issued informative re- 
leases on developments in their areas. Individual assistance was 
given numerous writers for magazines, newspapers, radio, and tele- 
vision stations and motion picture companies. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 293 

Staffing 

Mission 66 provides for additional interpretive personnel in the 
parks and monuments. In the past year a total of 39 new permanent 
interpretive positions was filled by naturalists, historians, and arche- 
ologists. These men, and the larger numbers of seasonal personnel, 
accounted for the increased visitor services rendered in 1958, and 
enabled the National Park Service better to meet its responsibilities 
to ever increasing numbers of park visitors. 

Commissions Established 

Important celebration commissions established during the year 
pursuant to congressional acts included the Theodore Roosevelt Cen- 
tennial Commission, the Civil War Centennial Commission, and the 
Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission. 

OPERATIONS 

Following a study of the organizational structure of the Division, 
designed to promote more efficient operation, the protection functions 
of the Branch of Conservation and Protection became the Division of 
Ranger Activities, with the Maintenance Section of that Branch re- 
maining in the Operations Division as the Branch of Maintenance. 
As reorganized, the Division was enabled more effectively to admin- 
ister programing, concessioner management, land acquisition, and 
maintenance activities. 

Despite increased pressures, construction programing during the 
fiscal years was more effective than ever before, large quantities of 
inholdings were eliminated, many additional visitor accommodations 
were provided, and physical facilities were preserved and improved. 

Legislation 

Fulfillment of Mission 66 requires a broad and successful legislative 
program. Coordination and direction were provided for this program 
during the year and weeks before Congress adjourned, 18 items had 
been enacted in the second session. The financial restrictions which 
hampered administration of Virgin Islands National Park were re- 
moved. After many years an acceptable boundary was fixed for 
Everglades National Park. Exchange authority was obtained through 
which private lands in Olympic National Park may be acquired. The 
establishment of Fort Clatsop National Memorial was authorized to 
commemorate the successful crossing of the continent by the Lewis 



294 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

and Clark Expedition. National Park status was made possible for 
Petrified Forest National Monument. The authority to grant con- 
cession contracts for periods up to 20 years was increased to a max- 
imum of 30 years, thus assisting concessioners in financing large scale 
visitor accommodations called for by Mission 66. 

New Program Adjustment Form 

A special form was prepared and used for all development program 
adjustments. This form provides all data necessary for review- and 
approval of program adjustments in a uniform and documentary 
manner. The new procedure is quicker and more efficient than the old 
memorandum system. 

Accelerated Development Program 

With the objective of strengthening employment, development 
projects proposed for execution in fiscal year 1959 were reviewed and 
those for which plans were well developed or required very little plan 
preparation were advanced to fiscal year 1958. Procedures were estab- 
lished for rapid handling of plan approvals and contract awards to 
facilitate getting the maximum number of projects under way. Net 
result was the awarding of contracts for 39 roads and trails projects, 
9 parkways projects and 58 buildings and utilities projects. Roads 
and trails and parkways projects were financed by advancing contract 
authority in the amount of $14,765,500. Buildings and utilities proj- 
ects were financed on a loan basis to the extent of 1958 projects which 
could not be accomplished this fiscal year. 

Program Meeting 

Improved programing methods and procedures were developed at 
a meeting of all field programs officers held in Washington early in 
June. This was the first meeting of this group since establishment of 
the Branch of Programs in 1954. 

Discussions at the meeting produced a beneficial exchange of ideas 
on such specific problems as (1) progress on accomplishment of proj- 
ects in the current fiscal year program; (2) program adjustments to 
meet emergency situations; and (3) progress in the formulation of 
firm advance programs for study purposes and as an aid in preparing 
advance planning data, thus assuring better quality project data. 

Concession Authorizations 

Seven concession contracts were negotiated during the year. These 
called for construction programs at Mount McKinley and Grand Teton 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 295 

National Parks, and Blue Ridge Parkway, representing investments 
of about $645,600. Highlights in this field were conclusion of contracts 
with Mount McKinley National Park Company to operate McKinley 
Park Hotel and related facilities in Mount McKinley, and Virginia 
Peaks of Otter Company to install and operate facilities on the north- 
ern portion of Blue Ridge Parkway which resulted from a prospectus 
issued last year. 



Prospectuses 

Three prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for operation of 
facilities at Lake Mead, Olympic, and National Capital Parks. No 
contracts have yet been negotiated as a result, although offers have been 
received in response to the National Capital Parks prospectus. 

Concessioners' Improvements 

The New Canyon Village concessioner development in Yellowstone 
was dedicated August 31, 1057, representing an investment in excess 
of $6,000,000. A new concession building and an employee dormitory 
at Mount Rushmore, costing about $700,000, were dedicated August 
25, 1957. Lodge type accommodations, a trailer village and cafeteria 
were completed by Fred Harvey at the Mather area of Grand Canyon. 
The Everglades Park Company development in Everglades National 
Park, consisting of overnight accommodations, restaurant and lounge, 
and marine facilities at Flamingo, costing about $900,000, was com- 
pleted. Also, concessioner construction and improvement programs 
were completed at Mammoth Cave, Big Bend, Carlsbad Caverns, Cra- 
ter Lake, Glacier, Isle Royale, Olympic, Rocky Mountain, Shenan- 
doah, Bryce Canyon, and Yosemite National Parks, Canyon de Chelly 
and Statue of Liberty National Monuments, Lake Mead National Rec- 
reation Area, and Cape Hatteras National Seashore, with investments 
totaling about $1,332,609. Major construction programs were also un- 
dertaken at Yosemite by Yosemite Park and Curry Company and 
Degnan, Donohoe, Inc. 



Concession Booklet and Reports 

A new and popular booklet, Visitor Accommodations in Areas Ad- 
ministered by the National Park Service, was published; a report on 
the review of concessions and special use permits for service operations 
m National Capital Parks was submitted to the Secretary; an interim 
report on additional overnight accommodations planned under Mis- 
sion (i(; was submitted to the Assistant Secretary; and a study of the 

498491 O - 59 -3 



296 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

feasibility of constructing and operating overnight facilities at high 
elevations in Mount Rainier, being financed by Jackson Hole Preserve, 
Inc., was commenced by a private firm. 

Special Uses of Park Lands 

The majority of special use permits issued during the past year 
continued to be for agricultural use of small parcels of land to main- 
tain historical and rural scenes, for access facilities from private 
lands to park roads, and for utility lines. 

The number of requests for information on prospecting and mining 
in national parks and monuments and vacation cabin sites in na- 
tional recreation areas remained about the same as in previous years. 

Water Resources and Water Rights 

Testimony concerning water use and needs in the 21 Service areas 
in the Lower Colorado River Basin was presented in May 1958, in 
the Federal intervention in the suit between Arizona and California 
before the Supreme Court. Condemnation of the Saratoga Springs 
Tract of 160 acres and appurtenant springs and water rights at Death 
Valley National Monument and of private interests, including wells 
and springs, on 24,699.22 acres in the southwest portion of Organ 
Pipe Cactus National Monument was completed after several years 
of effort to identify owners and define interests. The suits were filed 
as a friendly move to clear title. 

Maintenance 

A study, fundamentally engineering in character, was made to 
consider the feasibility and practicability of providing year-round 
service for visitors to Yellowstone National Park. The study group 
was composed of a representative from the State Highway Depart- 
ment of Colorado; a consultant, formerly with the California State 
Highway Department; a representative from the American Auto- 
mobile Association of Denver; and a representative from the Bu- 
reau of Public Roads, as well as Service personnel. Highway 
Department representatives from Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming 
participated in the study as observers. The Snow Survey Commit- 
tee concluded that while it was possible to keep interior roads and 
entrances open on a year-round basis, this was not practical since 
estimated potential maximum load was only 140 vehicles a day during 
the winter. The Committee recommended target dates of November 
1 and May 1 for closing and opening, except in the case of the Cooke 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



297 



City-Red Lodge road where their recommendation was October 15 
and June 1. The findings of the Committee have been endorsed 
and approved as target dates for subsequent years. 



ADMINISTRATION 



Appropriations 



The Service's financial position was further strengthened through 
increased appropriations for 1958, the second year of the Mission 66 
program. A comparison of the 1958 appropriations with those for 
1957 is as follows: 



Appropriation item 


1957 fiscal year 


1958 fiscal year 


Increase (+) or 
decrease (— ) 


Management and protection . .. .. 


$11, 562, 000 

10, 158, 000 

1, 250, 000 

15, 250, 000 

29, 800, 000 


$14, 150, 000 

11,600,000 

1, 330, 000 

17, 400, 000 

31, 000, 000 


+$2, 588, 000 


Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities 


+1,442,000 
+80,000 




+2, 150, 000 


Construction (liquidation of contract authorization) 


+1, 200, 000 


Total cash appropriations 

Construction (amount by which roads and trails and 
parkways contract authorization exceeds or is less than 
cash appropriation) __ . . .... ... 


68, 020, 000 
-6, 300, 000 


75, 480, 000 
+ 15,765,500 


+7, 460, 000 
+22, 065, 500 








61, 720, 000 


91, 245, 500 


29, 525, 500 







Of the total increase in cash appropriations, about $1,140,000 was 
for contributions to the United States Civil Service Retirement Fund 
as authorized by Public Law 854 approved July 31, 1956. The in- 
crease of $29,525,500 in total new obligational authority includes 
$14,765,500 of 1959 fiscal year contract authorization, as provided in 
the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, w T hich was advanced for 
obligation during 1958 as an economy stimulating measure. This 
advance enabled the Service to get under way during the last quar- 
ter of the fiscal year the greatest amount of construction work that 
has ever been gotten under way during any comparable period in 
its history. 



Program for Improvement in Financial Management 

Continued progress was made throughout the year in the prosecu- 
tion of the Service's plan for improvement in financial management. 
Work continued on development of the new accounting manual which 
is now about 90 percent complete and which is being used through- 
out the Service in draft form. A significant improvement in finan- 
cial management was realized during the year from operations under 
the new accounting system, particularly in accounting control over 



298 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

the accelerated construction programs. Another item worthy of men- 
tion in the Financial Management Improvement program was com- 
pletion of a study to determine what changes, if any, in the Service's 
budget structure were necessary to synchronize it to the fullest extent 
possible with the organizational structure. The study was completed 
and at the close of the fiscal year recommendations resulting from it, 
which we feel will bring about substantial improvement in the Serv- 
ice's budget and accounting operations, were being considered by the 
Department. 

Completion of Visitor Fee Study 

During the year the study of the Service's visitor fee system, which 
was commenced in 1955 in accordance with a recommendation of the 
Organization and Management Survey but which was suspended 
prior to completion, was resumed and completed. Recommendations 
for changes in the fee system were submitted for the Secretary's 
consideration. 



Employment Development 

The Service's 18th General Administration Training Course was 
conducted in April in Santa Fe, N. Mex., for 27 selected Region Three 
men. 

Various improvements in the Service's training program were de- 
veloped, including an employee training record form and a require- 
ment for counseling employees to encourage their self-development 
through additional training or lateral transfer. 

Classification and Wage Matters 

The most noteworthy development in this area was the approval of 
new position classification standards for park rangers, replacing 
standards dating from 1948. Based on the new standards, nearly 
nine-tenths of all park ranger positions have been up-graded, thus 
putting the Service in a much more favorable position for recruiting 
and retaining high-caliber men as park rangers. 

Also, the Service participated successfully in the newly inaugurated 
voluntary program for the coordination of wage surveys among 
Federal agencies. 

Recruitment 

Reflecting widespread changes in economic conditions, we experi- 
enced throughout the Service a tremendous increase in applications 




BEFORE AND AFTER.— Above, the historic Beauregard House in Chalmette 
National Historical Park, near New Orleans, La., as it appeared before recon- 
struction got underway under the Mission 66 program of the National Park 
Service. The restored mansion as dedicated as a park visitor center and head- 
quarters on May IS, 1958, is shown below. 






■* 






&sb«f. 




300 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

for seasonal positions and for positions not requiring extensive train- 
ing or experience. Architects, landscape architects, and engineers as 
well as biologists, archeologists, and stenographers, continued to be 
in short supply. 



Employee Relations 

Our participation in the Department's incentive awards program 
received a great deal of attention from top management in Washing- 
ton and throughout the Service. Participation rate markedly ex- 
ceeded 1957 accomplishments with respect to cash awards for superior 
performance and at least equaled 1957 with respect to suggestions 
and honor awards. The Service's recommendation of a Conservation 
Service Award for the Jamestown Glass House Foundation, Inc., was 
approved by the Secretary. 



New Branch Established 

Through consolidation of the functions of the Branch of Office 
Services and the property management functions of the Branch of 
Finance, a Branch of Property and Records Management was estab- 
lished in the Division of Administration. This change puts greater 
emphasis organizationally on staff responsibility for property and 
paper work management functions, which, we believe, is a step in 
the right direction, although more remains to be done. The Branch 
is broken down into Property Management, Records Management, 
and General Services Sections. 



Property Management 

In the property management field, special attention has been given 
to the preparation of material for the property management portions 
of the National Park Service Administrative Manual and to a hand- 
book on purchasing and contracting. A Museum Records Handbook 
was written, published, and placed in use and substantial headway 
has been made in establishing satisfactory museum specimen records. 
At the year's end, consideration was being given to the application of 
automatic data processing techniques to property accounting. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 301 

Records Management 

The Records Management Section has been assigned the responsi- 
bility for coordinating and directing the revision of the National 
Park Service Administrative Manual as part of our directives man- 
agement program. Notwithstanding personnel limitations, encourag- 
ing progress is being made in that field as well as in forms, reports, 
and correspondence management. Much progress has been made 
throughout the Service during the year in the field of paper work 
management, including records scheduling and disposition. 

General Services 

Both the Mail and File Units of the General Services Section were 
reorganized to provide more effective and efficient operations required 
to keep abreast of the increasing volume of work resulting from the 
expanding programs of the Service. A physical inventory of all 
Washington Office nonexpendable property was undertaken and com- 
pleted by the Supply Unit with the cooperation of all offices. One 
additional position was authorized for the General Services Section 
during the year, modern equipment was installed, and improved 
methods adopted. Operations reached a higher level of efficiency 
and further improvement is dependent on authorization for the em- 
ployment of several additional people. 

Orientation and Refresher Courses 

A more thorough and uniform training program for clerical and 
stenographic personnel was undertaken and an instructor's guide is 
being prepared to assist in the continuing training of this important 
occupational group. 

Correspondence Handbook 

Correspondence instructions are being revised and put into hand- 
book form for ready reference by personnel concerned with corre- 
spondence preparation. The job was nearing completion as the year 
ended. 

Visitor-Accident Fatalities 

With an increase of 7.9 percent in the number of visitors in the 
calendar year 1957, there was a decrease of 14 percent in the number 
of visitor-accident fatalities. Motor vehicles and drownings con- 
tinued as the two leading: causes of visitor-accident fatalities. 



302 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Motor Boats 

Activity increased during the year on small boat safety. As a 
result of the report of the Bonner Committee, a National Conference 
on Small Boat Safety was called by the United States Coast Guard to 
which the Service sent two representatives. 

Special Training Course for Employees 

Through the cooperation of the Coast Guard, arrangements were 
made for eight employees of the National Park Service to be given 
training to enable them to examine applicants for licenses to operate 
motor boats carrying passengers for hire on nonnavigable waters in 
areas administered by the Service. 

Organization 

The Branch of Safety has been handling both employee and visitor 
safety for many years. In an effort to carry out the responsibilities 
more efficiently, a study was made during the year to reorganize the 
Branch of Safety and allow more time for the program of employee 
safety. The Chief Safety Officer as Vice Chairman of the Depart- 
ment Safety Council has been cooperating with the Department in 
its employee safety program. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

General 

The construction programs of the National Park Service during the 
1958 fiscal year involved a cash availability for all purposes, includ- 
ing previous year carry-over balances and advances of contractual 
authority, of $72,223,431. Of this amount approximately 96 percent 
had been obligated at the close of the fiscal year. This accomplish- 
ment involved the award of approximately 540 individual construc- 
tion contracts and the completion of many day labor projects. 

In addition, to meet the design and construction demands of the 
extremely diversified and extensive program without expansion of 
the design office forces, approximately 27 contracts for professional 
architectural and engineering services were entered into with com- 
mercial firms or individuals. 

The optimum use of services available under cooperative agree- 
ments with the Bureau of Public Roads, the Public Health Service, 
and the United States Forest Service was continued, as were the 
student assistant and trainee programs. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 303 

Roads and Trails 

Major road projects totaling $25,750,000 were started. Completed 
projects amounted to 175 miles at a cost of $9,728,000. The sum of 
$5,626,000 for additional work was obligated prior to June 30 raising 
the total work under construction to $32,142,000. Of this, 1959 fiscal 
year projects accounted for $8,800,000 which were obligated or ad- 
vertised for obligation by June 30, through advance contract authori- 
zation. 

Completion of the final stages of construction on three park routes 
opened 76.5 miles of new roadway to the public, namely, the Stevens 
Canyon Road, 18.5 miles, in Mount Rainier National Park, the 21- 
mile East Side Highway in Grand Teton National Park, and the 
Park Road, 37 miles in Everglades National Park. Grading and 
base construction on the 20-mile gap on the trans-mountain Tioga 
Road in Yosemite National Park was placed under contract. Recon- 
struction of the Kings Canyon Route, 8.8 miles serving the Cedar 
Grove a.rea and the Copper Creek trailhead was completed. 

Parkways 

Parkways construction reached its greatest volume since 1933. A 
$16 million contract authorization was provided by the Federal Aid 
Highway Act of 1956 and an accelerated program begun in April. 
Programed were $6,515,800 for the Blue Ridge Parkway in North 
Carolina and Virginia, $1,031,300 for the Foothills Parkway in Ten- 
nessee, $3,528,000 for the George Washington Memorial Parkway in 
Maryland and Virginia, $4,478,900 for the Natchez Trace Parkway in 
Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee, $146,000 for the Rock Creek and 
Potomac Parkway in Washington, D. C, and $300,000 for advance 
planning. These funds were concentrated to provide additional public 
service facilities and to close gaps in parkway construction to permit 
continuous travel on the Blue Ridge Parkway between Roanoke, Va., 
and Asheville, N. C, and between Balsam Gap, N. C, and Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park; on the Natchez Trace Parkway be- 
tween Tupelo, Miss., and Jackson, Miss., and extensions of the George 
Washington Memorial Parkway from Spout Run to the Central In- 
telligence headquarters at Langley, Va. 

On June 30, contracts totaling approximately $29,212,000 were in 
process under the Bureau of Public Roads program, including 125 
miles of paving, 108 miles of grading and base course, 42 bridges, 29 
grade separations, tunnel lining, slope stablization, and guardwalls. 

Parkway contracts totaling approximately $4,400,000 on 16 major 
projects including 23 miles of grading, 9 bridges and grade separa- 
tions, guardwalls, and guardrails were completed. 



304 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Advisory service was provided to the State Highway Departments 
of Illinois, Kentucky, Mississippi, and Missouri, for field studies of 
the proposed Great River Road along the Mississippi River. 

Buildings 

The building construction program alleviated to some extent criti- 
cal shortages of facilities for visitors in the following National Parks 
and Monuments: Visitor centers were completed at Flamingo, Ever- 
glades; Organ Pipe Cactus, Andrew Johnson, Craters of the Moon, 
Chalmette, Dinosaur; Colter Bay, Grand Teton; and Canyon, Yel- 
lowstone. Visitor centers are under construction at Abraham Lin- 
coln, Hopewell Village; Dickey Ridge, Shenadoah; Pipestone, 
Moores Creek, Badlands, Mammoth Cave, Theodore Roosevelt, Bryce 
Canyon, Fort Union, Aztec Ruins, Petrified Forest, Saguaro, Rich- 
mond Battlefield; Eielson, Mount McKinley; and Grand Teton. 
Plans are in preparation for visitor centers at Gettysburg, Wright 
Brothers, and Cumberland Gap. The visitor center at Death Valley 
is being constructed in collaboration with the State of California 
which is sharing the cost and providing museum facilities. 

Restoration and rehabilitation of historic buildings included the 
home of Andrew Johnson ; the Schuyler House, Saratoga ; structures 
at Appomattox Courthouse, Hopewell Village, Chalmette, Fort 
Laramie, Independence, and Harpers Ferry. 

The recording program of the Historic American Building Survey 
was resumed in the 1958 fiscal year after being suspended since the 
beginning of World War II. Through the student assistant pro- 
gram measured drawings were completed for many historic buildings 
in Service custody not previously included in the Survey. Drawings 
were finished on partially completed surveys remaining after suspen- 
sion of the work in 1941. A supplement to the Catalog of the Meas- 
ured Drawings and Photographs of the Historic American Buildings 
Survey in the Library of Congress is nearing completion which will 
list the surveys received subsequent to its publication in March 1941. 
The Service is collaborating with the American Institute of Archi- 
tects in its Historic American Buildings Inventory and is contributing 
to and participating in research and experimentation with Ohio 
State University in recording buildings through photogrammetry, a 
process of obtaining measured drawings of building elevations and 
interiors from photographs. 

The employee housing program during the year provided for 136 
new permanent dwelling units and 53 seasonal units. This com- 
pares favorably with 101 permanent and 47 seasonal for the preceding 
year and 121 permanent and 57 seasonal units programed in 1959. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



305 



Other major items constructed were comfort stations in camp- 
grounds, utility buildings, and administration buildings. Additional 
overnight accommodations, housekeeping cabins, and shelters are un- 
der contract at Isle Royale National Park. 

The concessioners in Big Bend, Yosemite, Everglades, and other 
National Parks are adding facilities to better serve the visitors and 
keep up with the Mission 66 program. 

Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures 

Continued progress in the development, improvement, and aug- 
mentation of utilities and miscellaneous structures and facilities is 
reflected by the following general statistics : 



NEW VISITOR CENTER, DINOSAUR NATIONAL MONUMENT.— This unique 
structure built against the side of a cliff in which are entombed fossil bones of 
hundreds of dinosaurs, was dedicated as a Mission 66 project in June 1958. 
Visitors can view the embedded fossil bones of the prehistoric creatures while 
watching scientists at work recovering the remains in the fabulous dinosaur 
quarry 




306 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

There was a net gain of approximately 1450 camp sites in 47 of our 
campgrounds, including- newly developed campgrounds and additions 
to existing campgrounds. Work was completed on 61 water system 
and 43 sewer system projects involving a net increase in available 
water storage of about 8,161,000 gallons, all representing a capital 
investment of approximately $3,1 10,000 . k 

Work completed under the minor road and trail program cost 
approximately $1,800,000. It included the completion of approxi- 
mately 5.8 miles of new road, 5.9 miles of stage construction on addi- 
tional new roads, and reconstruction work on approximately 19.3 
miles of old roads. In addition, work was completed on 3.3 miles of 
new trails and reconstruction on 13.3 miles of existing trails. 

The loan of two LCU's for use as free, State operated ferry boats 
at Cape Hatteras National Seashore Recreational Area was nego- 
tiated with the Navy along with the loan of an LCVP for adminis- 
tration and protection on Fontana Lake in Great Smoky Mountains 
National Park. The Corps of Engineers transferred several hun- 
dred feet of aluminum bridge sections for urgently needed trail 
bridge replacements at Great Smoky Mountains and Shenandoah 
National Parks. 

Approximately 21 communication systems were converted from 
Government to commercial operations and maintenance. A new power 
generation and distribution system for the headquarters and Rock 
Harbor Lodge areas of Isle Royale National Park was completed and 
negotiations were well advanced to bring commercial power and tele- 
phone service to Yellowstone National Park. 

The 165-foot all steel passenger and freight vessel to serve Isle 
Royale National Park was launched on June 21, and a contract 
awarded for the deep water dock to serve it at Rock Harbor Lodge 
was to be completed during the summer. 

The Chief Engineer participated in Operation Alert, 1957 and 
1958 under a preplanned decentralized emergency operations organi- 
zation coordinated with the departmental program. 

Master Plans 

Master plans were kept well ahead of construction programs so 
that the work could be thoroughly coordinated with other divisions 
of the Service. A study was made to assure the close integration 
of the Master Plan Development Outlines and the Mission 66 pro- 
spectuses. This will greatly facilitate the operation of the construc- 
tion and development programs. A total of 290 master plan draw- 
ings was approved, and 168 preliminary studies were prepared and 
reviewed. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 307 

RECREATION RESOURCE PLANNING 

Park System Planning 

A long-range National Park System Plan was begun as part of the 
Mission 66 program. This plan for the orderly rounding out of an 
adequate system of nationally significant areas in appropriate classi- 
fications is to be completed by 1961. It will help to chart the way for 
selecting and preserving, while still available, outstanding scenic, 
scientific, and historic areas so that the Nation's future park needs 
may be fulfilled. 

New Areas Established 

The site of Fort Clatsop, near Astoria, Oreg., winter camp of the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition, was authorized to be established as a 
national memorial by the act of May 29, 1958. Petrified Forest 
National Monument in Arizona was authorized as a national park 
by the act of March 28, 1958. The park status becomes effective 
when inholdings are acquired. 

New Areas Proposed 

Legislation pending in Congress would authorize establishment of 
national parks on Cape Cod, Mass., and Padre Island, Tex. ; preserva- 
tion of an undeveloped stretch of the Indiana dunes on the shore 
of Lake Michigan as a national monument ; and transfer of Grant's 
Tomb in New York City to Federal ownership as a national me- 
morial. Other pending legislation would create a Grand Portage 
National Monument in Minnesota. A small tract there is now a na- 
tional historic site in non-Federal ownership. 

Designation of the old United States Mint building in San Fran- 
cisco as a national historic site is being considered by the Secretary. 
The General Services Administration has agreed to transfer the build- 
ing to the custody of the National Park Service when renovation of 
the new Mint building is completed. 

Russell Cave in Alabama, rich in evidences of early man, was for- 
mally offered by the National Geographic Society as a national mon- 
ument. The Society is completing acquisition of the land needed 
for such monument purposes. 

A full-scale study was made of the possible preservation of Fort 
Howie, historic Arizona army post, as a national monument. Preser- 
vation of the Kinishba Ruin in Arizona as a national monument was 
also studied in preparation for discussions with Apache Tribal Conn- 



308 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

cil and Bureau of Indian Affairs representatives. Investigations were 
continued to ascertain what grassland areas remain available for 
possible preservation as specimens of America's once- vast prairies. 

An extensive area of the glacial moraines of Wisconsin has been 
suggested as a possible unit of the National Park System, and studies 
of it have been authorized. 



Area Abolishment 

On November 1, 1957, the Millerton Lake National Recreation Area 
was officially transferred to the State of California for administration. 

Boundary Adjustments 

During fiscal year 1958 Congress authorized additions to Whitman 
and Fort Frederica National Monuments, a land exchange at Black 
Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument, and conveyance to 
Tennessee of land at Shiloh National Military Park for highway use. 
Small additions to Tumacacori and Fort Vancouver National Monu- 
ments were authorized by Presidential proclamation. A major en- 
largement of Fort Vancouver has been recommended. Enacted by 
Congress and signed July 2, 1958, by the President was a bill designat- 
ing new boundaries for Everglades National Park, thus resolving 
many long standing boundary problems there. 

Bills introduced in Congress during the past fiscal year would pro- 
vide administrative sites outside park boundaries at Yosemite and 
Mount Rainier National Parks ; authorize a land exchange at Vicks- 
burg National Memorial Park, and permit the use of Federal funds 
to acquire additions to Antietam National Battlefield Site and Chalm 
ette National Historical Park. Other bills would permit the Secre- 
tary to procure additional land for Edison Laboratory National 
Monument and would transfer two federally owned tracts to Cape 
Hatteras National Seashore. 

The President has been asked to add two islands to Fort Pulaski 
National Monument by proclamation; other proposals would add 
lands to Capitol Reef National Monument and adjust boundaries of 
Arches National Monument. Material enlargement of Cabrillo Na- 
tional Monument is proposed. The National Park Service applied 
to the Bureau of Land Management for withdrawal of a site for 
Katmai National Monument headquarters. 

Advisory and Consultative Assistance 

On 447 occasions, State and local agencies in 47 States were fur- 
nished assistance on a variety of problems. Of particular significance 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE ♦ 309 

was assistance to Arizona, Colorado, and Utah in planning for their 
first statewide park systems and to several other States in similar 
long-range planning programs. In addition, assistance was given 
to the Fish and Wildlife Service in planning for recreation use of 
three areas and to three Indian tribes on recreation-area planning 
and development. 

The scope and value of Service assistance was substantially in- 
creased by the addition of an experienced Interpretive Specialist to 
advise on development and operation of interpretive programs 

Park Practice Program 

Numerous "bouquet" letters and word-of-mouth commendations 
from Federal, State, and local park and recreation authorities indicate 
the increasing value of the publications issued under this program. 
Over 600 subscribers now receive the three publications issued by the 
National Conference on State Parks under this cooperative program, 
namely, Design sheets illustrating park and recreation structures, 
Guideline sheets dealing with policy, planning, development, and 
other aspects of park administration, and Grist, an illustrated bi- 
monthly information letter on operation, time and money -saving de- 
vices and methods, etc. Additionally, nearly 2,500 copies of Grist are 
sent to full subscribers who receive multiple copies and to others who 
subscribe only to this publication. 

Disposal of Real Property 

The Service investigated and reported on 41 applications submitted 
by the States and their political subdivisions to General Services Ad- 
ministration to acquire a total of 1,996 acres of Federal surplus real 
properties for park, recreation, and historical monument purposes. 
A total of 172 such properties involving 33,948 acres has been investi- 
gated since they first became available in 1948. Enforcement of com- 
pliance with the conditions in the deeds for a period of 20 years has 
increased each year since 1948, until now the Service has such respon- 
sibility on 116 properties involving 24,223 acres. The Service also 
reported to the Bureau of Land Management on 38 applications by 
State and local agencies to lease or purchase public domain lands for 
park and recreation use. 

Landscapes of Alaska — Their Geologic Evolution 

This handsomely illustrated 146-page book, prepared by staff mem- 
bers of the Geological Survey, edited by Howe! Williams, and pub- 



310 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

lished by the University of California Press, is the latest of the series 
of reports on the Service's Alaska Recreation Survey which was 
initiated in 1950 as an integral part of the Department's Alaska pro- 
gram. The publication reveals to the lay reader an understanding 
and appreciation of the geological evolution and significance of 
Alaska's magnificent scenic resources. 

State Park Statistics — 1957 

This 32-page processed edition reveals 2,216 State parks and re- 
lated types of recreation areas embracing over 5 million acres; ex- 
penditures of $32 million for lands and capital improvements and 
$42 million for operation and maintenance; 6,302 year-round and 
9,141 seasonal employees; and more than 216 million attendance, 
nearly 15 million of whom were overnight visitors. 

Regional and Basin-Wide Recreation Surveys 

Major investigations of the recreation potentialities of river basins 
were conducted in the Missouri, Delaware, and Columbia Basins, and 
in the northwestern California region. The year marked the termi- 
nation of a 3-year survey to provide a recreation land-use master plan 
for the Department on reclamation withdrawn lands along the Lower 
Colorado River, covering about 250 miles from Davis Dam to the 
Mexican border. 

The report on the Missouri River Basin-Wide Recreation Survey 
has been accepted by the Inter- Agency Committee and recommended 
for publication. The report on recreation resources of northwestern 
California was completed and sent to print. 

Preparatory to development of long-range recreation resource plan- 
ning reports, field work was begun on surveys in Alaska, under con- 
tract for a special study, and in Hawaii, through joint investigation 
by Service personnel and the Territorial Planning Office in Hawaii. 
A contract was signed for a similar survey of the Virgin Islands. 

Recreation Research 

Special studies, made under contract for the Service, included a pilot 
study of outdoor recreation activities and preferences of the popula- 
tion living in the region of the Delaware River Basin; a study to 
determine the trends in extra-urban parks and recreation areas and 
their adequacy in serving the recreation habits, needs, and prefer- 
ences of persons in large urban areas; and an economic analysis of 
recreation in northwestern California. 






: • 






FIRST HOMESTEAD. — Three young citizens gaze with wonder at the log cabin 
on the site of the first homestead claimed on January 1, 1863, minutes after 
the Homestead Act. The first homestead is protected by the National Park 
Service in Homestead National Monument near Beatrice, Nebr. 



Plans were made for an economic impact study, to be cosponsored 
oy the Bureau of Reclamation, on recreation values resulting from a 
selected group of completed reservoirs in Nebraska. A contract was 
signed also for a study of organized camps to provide information 
necessary for formulating a program to adequately meet the needs of 
hildren aged 9 to 16. 



Reservoir Development and Management 

Studies continued in the spectacular Glen Canyon Reservoir area. 
Preliminary planning reports were prepared on the Navajo and Flam- 
ing Gorge units of the Colorado River storage project. Studies at 
Flaming Gorge indicated that the recreation phases of this future 
reservoir will be of national significance. 

The Secretary, on April 21, designated the Service as the agency re- 
sponsible for carrying out provisions of Section 8 of the Colorado 
River Storage Act, which provides that the Secretary is authorized 
md directed to investigate, plan, construct, operate, and maintain pub- 
lic recreation facilities on the several reservoirs and participating 
projects. 



312 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Recreation reconnaissance or planning reports were prepared on 15 
Bureau projects and 7 reconnaissance reports were prepared for the 
Corps of Engineers. Reviews were made of 35 applications for Fed- 
eral Power Commission permits or licenses. 

RANGER ACTIVITIES 

Park Rangers 

The Park Ranger in his forestry green uniform and broad-brimmed 
hat is a familiar figure to the millions of people who visit the National 
Parks. They know him for his courteous and friendly manner and 
his willingness to take a personal interest in seeing that they get full 
enjoyment from their visits. No other agency of the Federal Govern- 
ment provides such a varied and extensive service, in such a direct, 
personal, and face-to-face manner, to so many citizens of our country. 

This year approximately 60,000,000 visitors were assisted by the 
Park Ranger. In doing his job well he has earned the respect, ad- 
miration, and gratitude of his countrymen and is becoming a national 
symbol of the best in Government service. 

In addition to protecting and providing services to an ever-increas- 
ing number of visitor's, Park Rangers achieved a high degree of suc- 
cess in protecting and regulating the use of National Parks and their 
forests, wildlife, and many other important scenic and scientific 
features. Intensive study is being devoted to ways of strengthening 
the ranger staff, to permit them to cope with a growing, and already 
near-overwhelming, workload. 

The establishment of a Division of Ranger Activities in the Wash- 
ington Office during this year, as a part of the Mission 66 Program, 
was an event of outstanding significance to the Service and particu- 
larly to Park Rangers. For the first time this large group of em- 
ployees, and the many important functions for which they are respon- 
sible, has been given status as a division in the Service organization. 
This new Division has a Branch of Park Forest and Wildlife Protec- 
tion and a Branch of Visitor Protection. Its implementation in each 
of the Service's Regional Offices will be accomplished as soon as funds 
are available. 

Also of unusual importance was the development, approval, and 
application of a new set of Civil Service Classifications Specifica- 
tions for Park Ranger positions. This action resulted in the upgrad- 
ing of approximately 80 percent of these positions. 

Water Use 

Water related activities are surging ahead in visitor popularity to 
compound enjoyment for many and to also compound Service re- 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 313 

sponsibilities for safety and the conservation of a natural resource 
delicately balanced in an atmosphere yielding to both serenity and 
the sports diversions. A boating committee with wide representa- 
tion is presently developing policy and regulatory recommendations 
in line with prime objectives. 

Winter Use 

There is a trend toward an extended annual period of general Park 
use. People are, except under conditions of climatic extremes 3 taking 
advantage of improved roads, transportation, year-long accommoda- 
tions, longer and less seasonal vacations to explore the out-of-doors. 
Recreation in the snow and the beauty of winter landscapes are be- 
coming more attractive to increasing numbers and the Parks are 
thereby serving a fuller purpose. 

Mountaineering 

A total of 19,191 persons, representing 1,154 parties or groups, par- 
ticipated in recorded mountaineering activities in 10 of the Parks and 
Monuments drawing the special attention of those interested in this 
form of relaxation. This compares with 18,049 registered mountain 
climbers last year. 

There were 3 fatalities and 13 serious injuries. Park Rangers ef- 
fected 20 rescue and evacuation operations of major proportions. 
Training and equipment stores were expanded and improved. 

Camping 

An expanding interest in camping was shown by the recorded in- 
crease of 15.6 percent from 3,633,000 camper days in 1956 to 4,201,000 
in 1957. Field studies have been undertaken to establish uniform 
methods for collecting travel statistics and more closely relating visitor 
use to the requirements of staffing and physical improvements. 

White Pine Blister Rust Control 

Work in 14 areas has progressed for control of white pine blister 
rust on 376,239 acres to the extent that the ribes (wild currants and 
gooseberries), the alternate hosts of the disease, have been initially 
removed from 91 percent of the control area. Seventy-seven percent 
of the control area is now on a maintenance status which means that 
only periodic workings are required to keep the areas "ribes free." 

Forest Fire Control 

Forest fire prevention and control activities were unusually suc- 
cessful, for not in the past 25 years have so few man-caused fires been 



314 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

fought. However, camper-caused fires were more numerous than 
during any previous year, but still a small number considering the 
record visitation to the parks. Fires caused by lightning almost 
equaled the annual average for the past 30 years. A large fire in 
Everglades National Park, which spread over a large acreage of grass- 
land, was primarily the reason the total burned area exceeded the 
30-year average. Despite this fire, the forest land damaged was only 
36 percent of the annual average. 

Grazing by Domestic Livestock 

The grazing by domestic livestock under permit within the western 
national parks and monuments is continuing with little change. The 
ultimate goal of eliminating this nonconforming use will not be at- 
tained for a number of years because of the tenure of the permittees. 
However, an accelerated fencing program has reduced some trespass 
grazing and is eliminating grazing in areas having high park values. 
An example of the latter is the cactus forest at Saguaro National 
Monument. 

Forest Pest Control 

For the past several years a Southern pine beetle epidemic has 
been a serious problem in Great Smoky Mountains National Park. 
Reduction of the beetle population has been difficult because of 
aggressive attacks by 5 and 6 generations per year. Through con- 
certed action and other factors control now has been established. 

Maintenance control projects for a number of pests have kept vege- 
tation losses to a minimum. The persistent attacks of the Black 
Hills bark beetle have required several seasons of cooperative effort 
by personnel of Bryce Canyon National Park and the Dixie National 
Forest to place the status of this pest on a maintenance basis. Also 
the spruce budworm control project in Yellowstone National Park 
appears to have been successful. 

Research to determine means of control of forest pests, both patho- 
logical and entomological, has usually been devoted primarily to pests 
whose host trees have commercial values. Knowledge to control a 
number of pests of noncommercial species which have high scenic 
or recreational values in the parks has been lacking because of this 
emphasis. Recognition by the entomologists and pathologists of this 
situation is now evidenced by several pilot test control projects on 
pests that are seriously damaging park values such as the lodgepole 
pine needleminer in Yosemite and the pinyon pine scale at Grand 
Canyon. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 315 

Wildlife and Fish Management 

Biological activities relating to wildlife and fish have been sepa- 
rated into research and management. The Division of Ranger Ac- 
tivities is responsible for management programs. 

The large elk herd of northern Yellowstone continues to be a 
pressing problem. The mild winter caused the reduction program 
to fall short of the required number to bring the herd within the 
carrying capacity of the range. 

The management program for the Teton elk herd continued to 
receive field study. 



NATIONAL CAPITAL PARKS 

Administration 

Upon the completion of the first year under the new reorganization, 
many of the recommendations of the 1957 Survey Report on National 
Capital Parks have been effected, including the establishment of the 
position of Advance Planner in the Superintendent's office. 

Public Use and Interpretation 

More than 15 million persons by actual count participated in pub- 
lic use activities in the parks, which included 6 million visitors to 
the major national memorials, an attendance of 3 million persons 
at 233 special events, and the participation of 1,093,149 persons in 
the interpretive programs conducted by park naturalists and his- 
torians. An additional estimated 15 million persons actively used 
public park facilities — tennis, swimming, etc. — not covered by actual 
count, and an estimated 30 million persons engaged in various forms 
of less strenuous recreation in the parks. The Custis-Lee Mansion 
Museum was formally dedicated and opened to the public on June 
30, 1958. 

Protection 

The United States Park Police continued protective services help- 
ing to keep the parks relatively free from serious crime. Some 2,827 
courtesy traffic warnings were issued in line with the courtesy pro- 
gram for out-of-town visitors. Cooperative services with the Train- 
ing Division of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, 
the International Cooperation Administration, and with the Inter- 
national Education Exchange Service of the Department of State 
were continued. 



316 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Physical Improvements 

Contracts for 18 major projects included the construction of two 
bridges; the reconstruction of Beach Drive in Rock Creek Park, 
restoration of the Old Stone House, floodlighting the Washington 
Monument, and completion of 4 recreation structures. Other proj- 
ects near completion or under way include the floodlighting of the 
United States Marine Corps War Memorial, riding stables in Rock 
Creek Park and the Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway, and develop- 
ment of Belle Haven picnic area. Progress continued on the George 
Washington Memorial Parkway upstream from Key Bridge in Vir- 
ginia and Maryland. Seventeen park reservations were rehabilitated 
by landscape treatment and installation of concrete curbing, benches 
and stone walks. Landscape work involved the planting of 1,166 
trees and -1,657 shrubs. Some 2,751 new trees and 8,219 shrubs were 
placed in the park nursery ; some 26,970 plants were propagated and 
54,600 budding plants were set out in park displays. 

Scientific Research and Planning 

Research projects in agronomy were undertaken by the Plant 
Pathologist's office. Master plans were developed for Fort Wash- 
ington and Greenbelt Parks. Development plans are now in prepara- 
tion for the Water Sports Outer, the Rock Creek Nature Center, the 
Washington Monument Plaza, and parking areas in Rock Creek Park. 

DIVISION OF AUDITS 

Major reports completed during the year by the Division of Audits 
cover the following Service and concession operations: Division of 
Administration, National Capital Parks; Bandelier National Monu- 
ment; Best's Studio, Inc., Yosemite National Park; Cape Hatteras 
National Seashore Recreational Area; Chickamauga- Chattanooga 
National Military Park; Degnan, Donohoe, Inc., Yosemite National 
Park ; Everglades National Park ; Fort Pulaski National Monument ; 
Fort Union National Monument; Mrs. Evelyn Frey, Bandelier Na- 
tional Monument; Great Smoky Mountains National Park; Harris 
Pictures, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument; Evelyn Hill, 
Inc., Statue of Liberty National Monument; Jefferson National Ex- 
pansion Memorial National Historic Site; Arthur F. and Marion J. 
Lange, Grand Teton National Park; S. G. Loeffler Company, Na- 
tional Capital Parks ; Morristown National Historical Park ; Natchez 
Trace Parkway; Olympic Hot Springs Company, Olympic National 
Park; Olympic National Park; Rainier National Park Company, 
Mount Rainier National Park ; and Yosemite National Park. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 317 

The audit program is designed to provide an objective evaluation of 
Inancial management and other operations on a systematic and re- 
curring basis. Many recommendations were made and accepted for 
mprovement of controls over the use and safeguarding of assets, im- 
Drovement of accounting records and supporting data to make them 
nore useful to management, and recommendations concerning adher- 
snce to financial and operating policies, plans, and procedures. Find- 
ngs of the audits of concession operations continue to show a need for 
mproved internal controls and accounting records to provide the 
Service with accurate information for the administration of rates 
•barged by concessioners and negotiation of franchise fees. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1959 O — 498491 



ANNUAL REPORT 



of the DIRECTOR 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



to the 



SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



Reprinted from the 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 
OF THE INTERIOR — FRED A. SEATON 
For the Fiscal Tear Ended June 30, 1959 




UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 

APR 25 I960 
LIBRARIES 



... 



National Park Service 

Conrad L. Wirth, Director 

* • • 



N JUNE 30, 1959, the Mission 66 program of the Department of 
e Interior's National Park Service was poised to push forward 
to the fourth year of its 10-year program to assure the development 
id protection of the National Parks, Monument and Historic Sites 
>r the enjoyment and inspiration of future generations. 
As fiscal 1959 ended, the National Park System was in the best 
ndition in its history. Almost everywhere throughout the De- 
triment's 181 park areas, improvements promised when the pro- 
ram was launched in 1956 were becoming visible. 
Yet, even as the new improvements came into being and as park 
affs were increased, it became clear that even more strenuous 
forts must be made in the coming years to keep abreast of the ever- 
sing tide of visitors. 

In the first 6 months of 1959 visitation to the parks was 8.5 per- 
ent above the total for the same period in 1958, and it was estimated 
hat visitation for the 1959 calendar year would approximate 62,- 
00,000 or 6.2 percent more visitors than were recorded in the pre- 
ious year. 

The challenge confronting the Service now is to push its Mission 
16 program forward with all possible vigor and speed to meet the 
steadily rising demands of the people for enjoyable and educational 
ise of the National Park System. 

When Mission 66 was launched on July 1, 1956, it was planned 
;hat orderly progress, year-by-year, would find the National Park 
System properly staffed and equipped to care for 80,000,000 visitors 
m 1966 — the 50th anniversary of the establishment of the Service. 

Bold and forward looking as original Mission 66 planning was, 
it already has become apparent that it is insufficient to meet the un- 
expectedly swift increase in demands being made upon the Park 
System. Already it is evident that more than 80,000,000 people will 

323 



324 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl 

visit the parks in 1966 and plans must be made now to provide tin 
facilities and the staffs to accommodate them. A restudy of tin 
original Mission 66 program is under way. 

The intensive use made during the past year of new facilities anc 
services attested to the soundness of the plans for development, man 
agement and protection of the parks under Mission 66. New visitoi 
center buildings, roads, trails, campgrounds, and other facilities wen 
scheduled to open for public use during calendar year 1959, anc 
many contracts have been let for further construction. 

During the past fiscal year, 710 projects involving an investment ol 
$59,083,000 were either placed under construction or committed fo: 
construction, and an additional 708 projects worth $36,616,000 were* 
completed. Since Mission 66 was launched, 1,946 construction proj- 
ects involving an investment of $96,459,000 have been completed. 

While construction projects may have provided visitors with dra 
matic examples of Mission 66 progress, much was accomplished "be- 
hind the scenes" to better protect the wilderness and the wildlife anc 
the priceless historic buildings and treasures that have been entrusted 
to the care of the Department of the Interior. 

During the year, 218 new permanent employees were hired to man 
age, protect, and maintain the parks. Total staffing under Missior 
66, has increased almost 10 percent from about 7,200 permanent anc 
seasonal employees on June 30, 1956, to neary 8,000 on June 30, 1959 

Thirteen new visitor centers have been placed in operation anc 
20 others were under construction this year. 

With the completion of the final stages of the Jamestown Tom 
Road in Colonial National Historical Park, the Heart O' the Hills 
Road in Olympic National Park, and the entrance road at Arches 
National Monument, a total of 20 miles of new park routes wer< 
opened to the public. 

Outstanding among the major roads projects placed under con 
tract during the year were : The Thornton Gap Interchange and ap 
proaches at Shenandoah National Park; reconstruction of Unioi 
Avenue at Vicksburg National Military Park; the entrance at Mess 
Verde National Park, paving of the Lassen Peak Highway at Lasser 
Volcanic National Park, reconstruction of the South Entrance Roac 
at Zion National Park, reconstruction on the Jackson Lake Road ai 
Grand Teton National Park and the construction of grade separa 
tions on 14th Street and the Mall in the District of Columbia. 

The National Parkways program also continued at a high rat< 
of construction and concentrated on closing gaps of Parkway con 
struction and providing additional visitor facilities along the com 
pleted sections. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1958 provided f 
$16 million authorization which was programed for the Blue Ridge 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 325 

arkway in North Carolina and Virginia; Foothills Parkway in 
'ennessee; George Washington Memorial Parkway in Virginia and 
Maryland; Natchez Trace Parkway in Alabama, Mississippi and 

ennessee; and Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway in Washington, 

D.C. 

The National Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission 

as established in June 1958, by the 85th Congress to conduct a 

ationwide survey of the outdoor recreation resources of the nation 
nd to develop recommendations for such policies and programs that 

ill assure adequate quantity and quality of outdoor recreation op- 
jortunities to meet the nation's increased future population needs. 

An earlier recreational study program, started by the National 

ark Service in 1936, to plan for the establishment of outdoor recrea- 
ion areas by all levels of Government — Federal, State, and local — 
nd accelerated under the Mission 66 program — is now tied in closely 

ith the National Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commis- 
ion. 

In the field of planning and surveys excellent progress w T as made 
uring the year. Under the long-range National Park System plan, 
special staffs in the Regional Offices continued taking inventory of 
scenic and scientific resources that have primary value for park and 
■ecreation purposes. Analysis of the inventory will ultimately 
establish what areas possess nationally significant values and merits 
! or possible status as units of the National Park System. 

Nationwide recreation planning was concentrated on the inventory 
)f existing recreation areas and the forecasting of future needs. 
A±>out 85 percent of the inventory and evaluation of areas admin- 
stered by State and local agencies was completed. 

Looking into the future, to the years 1975 and 2000, good starts 
were made in determining the needs for park and recreation areas 
for those years and the potential areas with outstanding recreation 
resources which would fill the future needs of the National Park 
System. 

During the fiscal year, 24 laws directly affecting the National Park 
Service were enacted by Congress. An outside-the-park adminis- 
trative site for Yosemite National Park, was authorized at El Portal, 
Calif., and a suitable boundary for Everglades National Park in 
Florida was fixed. Authority was granted to develop and complete 
Jefferson National Expansion Memorial at St. Louis, Mo., according 
to approved plans. Grand Portage National Monument in Minne- 
sota was authorized, and the General Grant National Monument in 
New York City was officially established. The Minute Man National 
Historic Site in Massachusetts was established by Secretarial Order. 
An Executive Order establishing Horseshoe Bend National Military 



326 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI 

Park in Alabama was signed by the President on August 11, shortly 
after the close of the fiscal year. 

The Department proposed legislation, later introduced, to preserve 
certain shoreline areas. If enacted, it would establish the basic 
principle that it is in the national interest to set aside significan 
portions of shore areas for this and future generations. The pro 
posal would authorize Federal preservation of three shoreline areas 
possessing national significance. The Secretary of the Interioi 
would have the authority to designate such areas. 

Other pending legislation would authorize Bent's Old Fort 
Colorado, Fort Bowie and the Hubbell Trading Post, both ir 
Arizona, to be established as national historic sites; the preservatior 
of Arkansas Post in Arkansas as a unit of the System ; establishmenl 
of the Minute Man National Historical Park, Mass.; and establish 
ment of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park 
Md. 

The Department endorsed those proposals and, in addition, askec 
that Dinosaur National Monument be given the status of a Nationa 1 
Park, and recommended legislation to provide an adequate basis foi 
administration of the Lake Mead National Recreation Area. At the 
fiscal year's end the Department was giving sympathetic considera- 
tion to a recommendation that a 147,000-acre area in the Snake 
Range of Eastern Nevada, to include Wheeler Peak and Lehman 
Caves National Monument, be sought for establishment as a National 
Park. 



River Basin and Regional Studies 

Investigations continued on the recreation potentialities of the 
Columbia River Basin and the Delaware River Basin. The report 
on findings of the Missouri River Basin -Wide Recreation Survey 
was submitted. The report on recreation resources of northwestern 
California was delivered to the Pacific Southwest Field Committee 
for distribution. 

Special assistance was provided to Hawaii on an inventory of exist- 
ing and potential recreation areas. Draft reports were prepared on 
the recreation potential of Alaska, and assistance was given to Utah 
and Colorado in the formulation of plans for new State park systems. 

Mission 66 

Started in 1956, Mission 66, in a sense, came of age in 1959. Such 
a continuous, long-range program requires many preparatory steps, 




JU1% 



* *attr. 



?rr**' 



>L. 






~ii -i 



..^'^'ft^s; 




Development of improved roads and parking areas under Mission 66 
s none too soon as shown by this throng of visitors at Yellowstone 
National Park. 

,nd must build up gradually. During the initial stage, much more 
nergy and money are applied than can be extracted as immediate 
fenefits. 

By the end of 1959, however, with many programs and projects 
tarted in earlier years coming to maturity, the use benefits of Mis- 
ion 66 assumed a dominant position. Mission 66 is now in good bal- 
ance, and the effort and funds being invested in new projects and 
programs are equalled or exceeded by the benefits resulting from 
he completion of facilities and the maturing of programs that 
tarted in earlier years. 

It is very important that the program maintain this equilibrium 
p it progresses throughout the remaining 7 years of Mission 66, not 
>nly for reasons of economy and efficiency, but to keep pace with the 
lemands of increasing park travel as well. 

Mission 66 cannot be considered apart from the full National Park 
Service program — they are the same. The accomplishments of Mis- 
ion 66 are the accomplishments of the Service, and are detailed in 
)ther sections of this report. 

The following highlights are cited both to illustrate the nature 
)f the program and to demonstrate the advantage of long-range 
planning when provided with the support necessary to keep the 
ob going on full schedule. 



539468 O -60 -2 



328 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI 

Lands were acquired and plans decided which will result in th< 
removal of many administrative, operating, and employee housing 
structures from congested Yosemite Valley, and their relocation a 
El Portal, Calif., just outside the boundary of Yosemite Nationa 
Park. 

The basic development of Mather Village in Grand Canyon Na 
tional Park, Arizona, was completed, and some of the facilities 
placed in use. This development will accomplish the expansion am 
decentralization of public use developments, and eventually effec 
the restoration of the natural scene on the rim proper, much as has 
been done at Canyon Village in Yellowstone National Park, Wyom 
ing-Montana-Idaho. 

Wilderness research projects, in cooperation with universities anc 
specialists, were started in the Rocky Mountain and Sierra parks, t( 
assemble knowledge supporting more effective preservation of na 
tural and wilderness values. 

The completion of new visitor use facilities in Everglades Nationa 
Park, Florida, stimulated the resolution, after many years of nego 
tiation, of boundary and land problems in this park. 

The flexibility of the Mission 66 program was demonstrated a 
camp-ground development was stepped up in response to the ver* 
rapid increase in camping evident in the last 2 years. 

Interpretation and presentation programs were greatly strength- 
ened as 13 new visitor centers were placed in operation. 

For the first time, Isle Eoyale National Park, in Michigan, be- 
came adequately accessible with the launching of the 96-passengei 
motor craft, the Ranger III. 

With all activities moving forward and showing results, the Mis- 
sion 66 staff work focused upon the internal functions of the Service, 
seeking ways to achieve more efficient operation, effective use of 
manpower, better and more rapid planning procedures, improved 
competence in personnel, and greater economy. In these fields, four 
items are especially worthy of mention: 

1. Two attractive, full-color bulletins were produced, designed to 
invite into government service men of highest competence and qual- 
ity. The first pertains to the uniformed field force — rangers, 
naturalists, historians, and archeologists. The second is addressed 
to the professions of landscape architecture, architecture, and en- 
gineering. 

2. Prospectuses were prepared proposing the establishment of the 
National Park Service training school at a permanent location and 
in permanent facilities. The recruitment of highest quality per- 
sonnel, and the maintenance of the highest degree of competence, 
are basic to good public service. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 329 

3. In order to reduce the disparity between parks to a more com- 
prehensible and manageable basis, to provide a greater degree of 
jonsistency, uniformity, and economy of operation, and to permit 
nore specific delineation of responsibilities and relationships, the 
ireas administered by the Service were classified in five management 

roups. The organizational pattern designed for each group is 
consistent with the needs of the parks comprising each group, and 
vith relationships with the Regional Offices. 

4. A study of planning and management procedures resulted in 
| new format, new content, and new procedures for preparing Master 
-•lans, and the scheduling of Master Plan revision for all parks over 
he next 3-year period. The new Master Plan will not only con- 
olidate into one document several separate planning instruments, 
rat will provide a sounder basis for development planning, extend 
he Master Plan concept into the management field, and streamline 
)rocedures for preparation and approval of this basic instrument 
)f park administration. 



Interpretation 

The interpretive program of the National Park Service provides 
m educational service on a national scale. In the 1958 calendar 
rear, more than 58 million people visited the 181 scenic, scientific, 
listorical and archeological and recreational areas included in the 
National Park System. 

Visitors want to appreciate and understand what they see and ask 
mestions that must be answered accurately and completely. To 
tnswer the questions of park visitors concerning geology, natural 
listory, history, and archeology of the parks is the assignment of 
he interpretive program of the Service. 

Park visitors find inspiration at Jamestown, on the Oregon Trail 
lear Fort Laramie, or on the great battlefields of the Revolution 
nd the Civil War. The Grand Canyon, the beautiful mountains 
ind streams, or a wilderness area in the National Parks, gradually 
omes to symbolize the nation in their minds, so that the type of 
:nowledge gained from the interpretive program of the parks pro- 
motes patriotism and good citizenship. The nature and scope of 
the Interpretive Program has been greatly improved and accelerated 
under Mission 66. 

Service to the Public 

To enable the visiting public to get the most out of their visits 
to the parks through understanding and appreciation, the Interpre- 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl 




Park historians add to the understanding and enjoyment of park visitor 
through talks and tours. 



tive Program provides Visitor Centers for orientation, for infor 
mation, and other conveniences which the visitor needs in visiting 
a park or historical area. 

The Visitor Center usually includes a museum or exhibit spac 
in which the story of the area can be told in an interesting an< 
attractive manner. These are not museums in the regular sense bu 
they display valuable specimens related to the park story and the 
technique of presentation is that of the museum. 

Collectively these park museums, and the collections at those tha 
have special collections, constitute one of the largest and mos 
important museum systems in the Nation. In Independence Nationa 
Historical Park, Phila., for instance, the Service has in its custody 
the Nation's largest collection of portraits of the founding father; 
of the United States. The Jamestown Visitor Center in Virginia ha! 
an enviable collection of early 17th century objects relating to ou: 
Colonial history. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 331 

In addition to the Visitor Centers and museums, the Interpretive 
Program provides expert guide service, self -guiding trails, trailside 
exhibits, and automatic or visitor-operated audiovisual aids and 
devices. To make history and natural history live and to make 
science intriguing is also an objective of the Interpretive Program. 

The number of visitors utilizing interpretive services during the 
calendar year 1958 increased over the preceding year's total at a 
rate 69 percent greater than the rate of increase in total park visita- 
tion. While the count of visitors participating in conducted trips 
or hearing interpretive talks by naturalists and historians remained 
just under 10 million, the significant advance in 1958 was in the 
use of self -guiding devices. Additional self -guiding facilities avail- 
able in 1958 raised the total of estimated contacts through this 
medium to over 30 million, a gain of 20 percent. Visitor centers and 
other attended stations recorded a gain to a total of 20.5 million 
visitors. 



Visitor Centers 

Visitor Centers built so far under Mission 66 have proved their 
value in terms of increased enjoyment and appreciation of the parks. 
Visitors have found these multi-purpose buildings convenient, effi- 
cient places for learning quickly what to see and do during their 
stay in a park. During this fiscal year 13 new Visitor Centers 
were completed and opened to the public, and 20 more were under 
construction. 

Among the new Visitor Centers are two that marked important 
anniversaries. The one at Abraham Lincoln National Historical 
Park, Ky., was built 150 years after Lincoln's birth. Exhibits there 
tell of his father and mother and their frontier life. 

The Visitor Center at Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial 
Park, N. Dak., was completed during the centennial year of his 
birth. It orients people to the widely scattered features of the park 
and tells of the significant influence Roosevelt's experiences as a 
rancher in the Badlands had on his life and work. 

Other Visitor Centers opened for the public were Moores Creek, 
Organ Pipe Cactus, Pipestone, Richmond, Yellowstone Canyon, 
Chaco Canyon, Fort Union, Hopewell, Carlsbad, Peaks of Otter, 
Cumberland Gap, and Colter Bay (Grand Teton). 

Museum Program 

An important byproduct of intensive work on museum records 
was more precise information about the historic and scientific col- 



332 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI 



lections being preserved in the parks. There are over 2,300,00( 
specimens, most of them carefully selected for their value in under 
standing and interpreting the parks and the national historical areas 
Plans were developed for a critical review of the contents of all pari 
collections to increase their value and use. 

Park collections continued to receive generous donations. At th< 
Spanish Embassy in Washington, D.C. on October 11, 1958, th< 
Minister of the Army of Spain presented to Under Secretary o 
the Interior Elmer F. Bennett, a series of early Spanish arms fo 
use at Castillo de San Marcos National Monument in St. Augustine 
Fla. 

Mr. William H. Robinson, Jr. of Gloucester, Mass., presented t( 
the National Park Service a bronze Spanish mortar and bed o 
about 1780. It will be mounted at Castillo de San Marcos. 

The staff of museum preservation specialists applied skillfu 
treatment to rare and valuable specimens for 28 parks. Their worl 
included preservation of the foundation timbers of the flag pol 
from which the Star Spangled Banner fleAv during the bombard 
ment of Fort McHenry in 1814. They also restored the celebrate* 
Thomas Moran paintings of the Grand Canyon and Yellowston 
in the Secretary's conference room, as well as important portrait 



New Visitor Centers, such as shown at Cumberland Gap National His 
torical Park, are an integral part of Mission 66, and offer greate 
park understanding and appreciation through orientation exhibits 
museum displays, information and other visitor facilities. 




%kW 






D KllJft 





NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 333 

rom the Independence Hall collection and from Morristown Na- 
ional Historical Park, N.J. 

The Eastern and Western Museum Laboratories worked at full 
apacity and supplemented their efforts by contracts with exhibit 
>uilders, so great was the demand for exhibit preparation. 

iudio-V isual Planning and Installations 

Distinct progress in the audiovisual field was made during fiscal 
ear 1959 by the Audio- Visual Laboratory. Outstanding were in- 
tallations of visitor-activated repetitive motion picture projectors 
t Dinosaur and Craters of the Moon; the installation of four im- 
proved visitor-activated cabinet projectors elsewhere; development of 

battery-operated message repeater for remotely located audio sta- 
ions, and complete audiovisual installations in assembly rooms of 
major visitor centers providing both automatic and manual 
•resentations. 

Zoadside and Trailside Interpretation 

In 1959, the development of many new roadside and trailside in- 
srpretive facilities strengthened the Interpretative Program. These 
ssist visitors who like to guide themselves, especially in heavily 
isited areas where the demand for guidance exceeds the park staff. 

New interpretive markers were installed on the Jackson Hole 
lighway, Grand Teton National Park, Cades Cove and Smokemont 
rails, Great Smoky Mountains National Park; Arches National 
lonument, Beaver Dam, and the Natchez Trace Parkway. 

Ze search 

Archeological excavations within areas administered by the Na- 
ional Park Service were carried out in Chaco Canyon, at Monte- 
uma Well, and at Tuzigoot. A survey of the north rim mesa in 
Valnut Canyon was completed and the Southern Illinois University 
urveyed the area south of Frijoles Canyon in Bandelier as part of 

long-term research program centering on the Pueblo of Cochiti. 
Reports on excavations at Petrified Forest and El Morro are being 
>repared and an analysis of survey collections from Organ Pipe 
Cactus National Monument is now underway. 

Archeological research in relation to construction projects was 
arried on at Badlands, George Washington Carver, Fort Laramie, 
larpers Ferry, Independence, Fort Union and Fort McHenry. 
Work at Fort Frederica was completed during the year. An im- 
portant project involving studies in ecology, soil analysis, palynology 



Wayside exhibits, such as this one of the Battle of Moore's Creek in Nort 
Carolina, aid young and old in understanding the significance of ou 
Nation's history. 



and geochronology as well as archeology was begun at Wetheri 
Mesa in Mesa Verde under the cosponsorship of the Service an 
the National Geographic Society. 

The extensive salvage archeology program conducted by the Nj 
tional Park Service through financial cooperation with other Fee 
eral agencies and State and local institutions is being continued 
the Missouri River Basin where several Smithsonian Institutio 
crews were in the field. In the Upper Colorado River project tr 
University of Utah, the Museum of Northern Arizona and tl 
Museum of New Mexico cooperated with the Service in survey an 
excavation work in the Glen Canyon and Navajo Reservoirs. 

Several projects are under way in Texas through cooperation wit 
the University of Texas, such as the Diablo and Cooper Reservoir 
Work continued in the Dalles and John Day Reservoirs in Was! 
ington and Oregon, whole excavations were carried on at Hartwe 
in Georgia, Walter F. George in Alabama, and numerous small are* 
in the eastern United States. 

In natural history, geological research is continuing in cooperatio 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 335 

ith the Department's Geological Survey in several areas involving 
laciology and geological mapping. Additional glacier studies are 
eing conducted at Olympic and Glacier Bay as part of the Inter- 
ational Geophysical Year program in cooperation with the Ameri- 
an Geological Institute. Other cooperative research in progress 
icludes geological studies at Cape Hatteras and Virgin Islands, and 
tratographic mapping at Badlands. The Service also is continuing 
he hydrothermal studies at Yellowstone initiated last year. 

The Service initiated biological research on bighorn sheep at Death 

alley and Dinosaur, and cooperative studies on the elk in Jackson 
lole, Wyo. Research was begun on the wolves and moose of Isle 
toyale in cooperation with Purdue University; and grizzly bear 
tudies at Mount McKinley, carried forward by the University of 
Llaska. Studies on the fragile alpine environments at Sequoia, 
iocky Mountain, and Grand Teton continued. Marine fishery re- 
earch progressed at Everglades and Virgin Islands, and the Depart- 
lent's Fish and Wildlife Service continued work on trout at 

ellowstone, Rocky Mountain, Shenandoah, and Great Smoky 
fountains. 

Historical and architectural research on the Assembly Room of 
ndependence Hall, Congress Hall, and Old City Hall and at 
larpers Ferry continued. Historical research at Fort McHenry 
ras brought to a conclusion with many fruitful results. 

Important historical research was undertaken on Booker T. Wash- 
Qgton and George W. Carver. A major study of the history of the 
ite of Federal Hall, first Capitol of the United States, was 
ompleted. 

Sational Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, reactivated 
mder Mission 66, continued to show good progress. The following 
tudies were completed: (1) Theme IV, Spanish Exploration and 
Settlement; (2) Spanish Colonial Sites in the Panama Canal Zone; 
3) Theme V, French Exploration and Settlement; (4) Theme XI, 
Advance of the Frontier, 1763-1830; (5) A Special Study of the 
^ewis and Clark Expedition; and special studies of other phases 
>f our Westward Expansion, namely (6) The Santa Fe Trail, (7) 
Hie Hubbell Trading Post, and (8) The Mining Frontier. 

Vildlife 

Special emphasis was given to utilizing the knowledge gained from 
vildlife research in the interpretive programs of the parks. In- 

539468 O -60 -3 



336 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO 

creased attention was given to the interpretation of fishes in the 
natural habitats. The fascinating marine life in the waters of Vi 
gin Islands was featured. 

Other examples showing the wide variety of opportunities afford* 
in this field by the National Park System are the wolves of Is 
Eoyale, the desert bighorn sheep of Death Valley, and the gn 
whales which migrate in view of thousands of visitors at Cabril 
National Monument in California. The expanding research pr 
gram on biological resources promises to provide a great wealth ( 
information for public education and enjoyment as well as fac 
needed for the conservation of these important resources. 

Staffing 

The National Park Service — with its almost 60 million visito 
seeking instruction in outdoor laboratory courses in history, geolog 
natural history and archeology — must have an adequate staff n 
only to give answers directly or to conduct guided trips, but 
plan the museum story and trailside exhibits. In 1958, the interpr 
tive professional staff numbered about 120 historians, 95 naturalist 
and 37 archeologists. To cope with the increased responsibilities < 
the interpretive program under Mission 66, 12 new permane: 
naturalist positions were established during the year; 12 new hi 
torians and 7 new archeologists were employed. 

Archeology, which since 1935 had been incorporated within 
Branch of History, was established as a separate Branch of Arch 
ology. The staff of the Museum Branch was increased by three. 

Memorial Commission Activities 

The National Park Service serves as the fiscal and cooperatii 
agency for the Civil War Centennial Commission, Lincoln Sesqr 
centennial Commission, Boston National Historic Sites Commissio 
and the Hudson-Champlain Celebration Commission. ' 

The Civil War Centennial Commission with headquarters at 7( 
Jackson Place, Washington, D.C., held its annual meeting Api 
15-16 in Richmond, Va. The Executive Director and Chairim 
met frequently with State commissions in planning for the cente: 
nial observances. The National Park Service collaborated with tl 
Commission in producing a film on "Planning for the Centennial i 
the Civil War." 

The Abraham Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission, schedule 
to function until March 1, 1960, sponsored or cooperated in mai 
observances including a joint session of the Congress on Februai 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 337 

12, when Carl Sandburg was principal speaker, a redesign of the 
Lincoln Penny, and an issue of four special stamps. Its secondary 
school program will reach 97 percent of the high schools in the 
United States, public, private, and parochial. It also has an active 
college program. Lincoln Day -by -Day, a four- volume work on his 
activities, is in the process of preparation for publication. 

The Boston Historic Sites Commission completed a major portion 
of its studies on the preservation and interpretation of Colonial and 
Kevolutionary historic sites in Boston and vicinity by the issuance 
of the Lexington-Concord Battle Road Report, published as House 
Document No. 58, 86th Congress. The final report of the Commis- 
sion covering sites in Boston proper will be completed in 1960. 

The Hudson-Champlain Celebration Commission, with headquar- 
ters in Federal Hall, New York City, was established by act of 
Congress, August 8, 1958. The Chairman has a commission of 21 
members who have sponsored or will sponsor appropriate ob- 
servances in New York, New Jersey, Vermont, and Canada, through- 
out the spring, summer, and fall months. 

Information and Publications 

Growing public interest in the great recreational, educational and 
patriotic assets contained within the National Park System was 
reflected throughout the year by mounting requests for informational 
publications and factual reports.. 

Although some 12,000,000 free informational publications were 
produced and about 500,000 were sold by the Government Printing 
Office, demand exceeded supply. 

The thirst for knowledge about the National Parks, Monuments 
and historic areas was worldwide. During the year requests were 
received from citizens of 58 foreign countries for National Park 
Service informational publications. 

Although the great bulk of park publications are distributed in 
the parks themselves, some 55,000 mail inquiries for park informa- 
tion were received in the Washington office. 

Handbooks on the historical significance and natural history of 
park areas and reports on the scientific findings of researchers sup- 
plemented the free informational program. Two new handbooks — 
Guilford Courthouse National Military Park, and Chalmette Na- 
tional Historical Park — were added to the handbook series during 
the year. A revised edition of the Saratoga National Historical 
Park handbook was issued and a handbook on tree bracing was re- 
vised and reissued. 



338 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Through many press releases, the public was kept informed of the 
progress of Mission 66 and other park matters of national interest. 
Individual assistance was provided to magazines, newspapers, radio 
and television stations, and motion picture companies in the prep- 
aration of materials concerning the parks. 



Division of Ranger Activities 

Throughout the past year, the Park Rangers successfully met 
their dual responsibility of serving as friend and protector to mil- 
lions of visitors and as protector of the parks and the scenic, scien- 
tific, and historic values they contain. Their work cannot be 
performed within the schedule of an 8-hour day or 40-hour week 
and Park Rangers continued to work many additional hours com- 
pensated for only through the satisfaction that comes from serving 
and helping others. Public recognition and appreciation of their 
efforts was evidenced by the large number of complimentary letters 
that were received by the Service from visitors whom they had 
helped. 

The new Division of Ranger Activities in the Washington Office 
completed its first full year of operation. Good progress was made 
in the development of much needed policies and policy guidelines 
covering important activities of Park Rangers. These included 
policy statements on law enforcement and mountain climbing. 

A joint conference of Chief Rangers and Interpreters was held 
in Washington, D.C., during March. This is the first such confer- 
ence ever held that included the participation of every Chief Ranger 
in the Service. It provided an excellent opportunity to study and 
discuss the full scope of Ranger Activities as they are found 
throughout the entire National Park Service. 

Of growing concern to Rangers in the larger, more heavily used 
parks, is the proportion of their available time now required to 
conduct protection and visitor service activities in the developed 
areas and along park roads. This situation has resulted in too little 
time left to regulate and control the increasing public use of the 
back country and to protect park values found there. 

During the year a task force of field employees was called to 
Washington where they studied Service uniform regulations, made 
recommendations for revisions needed to effect a higher degree of 
standardization, better appearance, and prepared a handbook out- 
lining how the uniform should be worn and maintained. 

The National Park Service Training Center at Yosemite National 
Park completed its second year of highly successful operation. 



:\ 




The awe-inspiring majesty of nature draws millions of Americans to our 
parks annually. 



340 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

During the year, the Arno B. Cameron and Newton B. Drury Ses- 
sions were held which provided 51 young men in their first year of 
employment with Service orientation and indoctrination together 
with some training in work techniques and skills. A young forester 
from Turkey, sent to this country by his Government to study na- 
tional parks and forestry, attended the fall session of the training 
center. 



Park Travel 

The upward trend in park attendance was cyclically interrupted 
in calendar 1958 when total visits declined 1 percent to 58,677,000 
from 1957 ? s 59,285,000. Resumption of the upward curve was clearly 
evident during the second half of fiscal year 1959. 

The collection of travel statistics and the analysis of public use 
has been reoriented toward measurement of park workload and 
determination of development priorities, staffing requirements, de- 
sign-load estimates, and need for services. 

Mountaineering 

The National Parks in the mountains of the West, and in Alaska, 
draw upon the hardy spirit of about 20,000 visitors annually who 
seek out the rugged summits for physical accomplishment. 

Search, rescue, or evacuation missions were incident to five fatali- 
ties and 20 other accidents with potentially serious consequences. 

The 3,600 foot face of El Capitan in Yosemite National Park was 
climbed by a group of expert mountaineers on November 12 after 
about 45 days of effort .expended at various times from a start made 
in July 1957. 

On July 2, two parties made the first successful ascents of Mount 
McKinley National Park, Alaska, since 1954. 

Boating 

The full force of power boating is felt on park waters and the 
need has arisen to study closely this popular form of use to deter- 
mine the degree of protection and control necessary to conserve the 
water-related resources and prevent injuries or deaths. 

Winter Use 

The Everglades, Hawaii, and Virgin Islands offer respite from 
the cold in warm waters under tropic skies. Rainier, Yosemite, 




lany national parks offer spectacular views and are centers for water 
ctivities including boating, fishing, and water skiing. 

)lympic, or Rocky Mountain with a cover of snow and frosty 
tightness bring opportunities for family participation in and 
ppreciation for outdoor activities and scenic splendor. Yearlong 
q these parks and in Great Smoky Mountains, Hatteras, Blue Ridge, 
r Sequoia people by increasing numbers are finding inspiration and 
efreshment. 

mumping 

In 1958, camping pursued its strong upward movement. It rose 
.1 percent from 4,201,000 camper days in 1957 to 4,665,000 in 1958. 
Campgrounds have been burdened beyond capacities, but this appro- 
mate and beneficial experience in the parks brings enjoyment to 
nany that could be provided in no other way. Small travel trailers 
tre growing in camper preference over tents. 



Wildlife and Fish Management 

This was the first full year that management responsibilities in 
wildlife conservation has been a function of the Division of Ranger 
Activities. To consider questions in management biology, 59 Wild- 
ife Rangers were designated by the Superintendents, and more 
than a dozen reports on fish and wildlife management have been 



342 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TNTERIO 

received. With assistance from cooperating agencies, wildlife re 
ductions were made at Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Yellowstone, Gran 
Canyon, and Rocky Mountain. 

Fish were planted in 13 areas, and in an attempt to reestablisl 
bighorn sheep, five were released at Theodore Roosevelt Nationa 
Memorial Park. 



Grazing 

Each year for the past several years there has been a light de 
crease in open-range use by domestic livestock in the western nationa 
parks and monuments. This trend continued in 1958. The elimi 
nation of this land use will not be realized until the distant futun 
because of the life tenure of many of the permittees. However 

Below: A striking example of Mission 66 activities in improving th( 
parks for the enjoyment and inspiration of this and future generations. 
This picture shows the falls in Yosemite Valley marred by an unsightly 
old building. Opposite page: The building has been removed, allowing 
for an unobstructed natural view of the spectacular falls. 



A 



i 







.**■ 



Wm^f 






iX 




-x. 




NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



345 



nd applied in and near the public use area at Bandelier appears 
o have been unusually successful. Mountain pine beetle control 
has been continued at Yosemite National Park in conjunction 
the intensive research program of the Department of Agricul- 
brest Service under way there to develop a successful *• * 
e needleminer now attacking over 50,000 




342 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOl 

received. With assistance from cooperating agencies, wildlife re 
ductions were made at Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Yellowstone, Granc 
Canyon, and Rocky Mountain. 

Fish were planted in 13 areas, and in an attempt to reestab 1 ' 
i<stc .„ n snee p 5 fi ve W ere released at Theodore Roosevelt NV 

The Serv?Jl rk - i most 

successful one. Tfcfc entered 

park boundaries were beio>, .ge of 339, 

and the 1958 burn of 3,770 acres .. ^ v year reported 

during the previous 10 years. 

The 1958 record of 209 lightning-caused fires and 124 man-caused 
fires is significant for usually fires caused by man's carelessness ex- 
ceed those started by lightning. Approximately 3,000 men devoted 
more than 91,000 hours on fire suppression activities. 

White Pine Blister Rust Control 

Initial eradication of ribes (wild currants and gooseberries), the 
alternate host of the disease, has been completed on 94 percent of 
the 375,404 acres included in control units. Eight-one percent of 
the control area in 14 areas administered by the National Park 
Service now only require infrequent workings in order to maintain 
a "ribes free" or maintenance status. 



Recreation Resource Planning 

Special staffs in the Regional Offices are taking inventory of scenic 
and scientific resources that have primary value for park and recre- 
ation purposes. Preliminary analysis of the data is being made to 
identify areas that possess nationally significant values and merit 
consideration for possible status as units of the National Park Sys- 
ter. Based upon the initial inventory and evaluation, plans are 
being drawn for comprehensive investigations of desirable and suit- 
able areas. 

Forest Pest Control 

Forest insect and disease conditions were generally less severe in 
the parks and monuments this year and maintenance control projects 
were successful in keeping losses from most pests at a minimum. 
The most destructive outbreaks were the continuing Southwestern 
pine beetle infestation at Bandelier National Monument and the 
mountain pine beetle attack associated with the lodgepole needle- 
miner infestation at Yosemite National Park. Spraying developed 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 345 

ind applied in and near the public use area at Bandelier appears 
o have been unusually successful. Mountain pine beetle control 
ork has been continued at Yosemite National Park in conjunction 
rith the intensive research program of the Department of Agricul- 
ure's Forest Service under way there to develop a successful control 
or lodgepole needleminer now attacking over 50,000 acres within 
he Park. 



Sew Areas Established 

In accordance with authorizing legislation, the General Grant 
fTational Memorial, N. Y., was officially established by acceptance 
>n May 1, 1959, of the deeds transferring the property from the 
Srrant Monument Association to the United States. 

The 8-acre Minute Man National Historic Site, Mass. was estab- 
ished by Secretarial order on April 14, 1959. Deeds to lands donated 
or Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Ala., were accepted by 
he United States, and an Executive order establishing the Park was 
igned early in fiscal 1960. 

The possibility of preserving a representative portion of the tall 
rrass or true prairie in Pottawatomie County, Kans., as a unit of 
he National Park System is being considered by the Department. 
This proposal culminates several years of study by the National 

ark Service of remaining portions of the tall grass prairie. Simi- 
ar studies are in progress to determine what possibilities remain to 
^reserve examples of the important short grass or mixed prairie. 
Definitive studies of the national park potentialities of the Snake 
Jange in eastern Nevada were completed and are being considered 
)y the Department. 

Boundary Adjustments 

During fiscal year 1959, the 85th Congress authorized boundary 
djustments which included additions of lands at Cape Hatteras 
National Seashore Recreational Area, Cowpens National Battlefield 
pte, Gloria Dei Church National Historic Site, Independence Na- 
ional Historical Park, and Isle Royale and Yosemite National 
*arks; a small deletion of lands at Sequoia National Park; and 
>oth additions and deletions at Everglades and Kings Canyon Na- 
ional Parks. Legislation was also enacted which authorized bound- 
iry changes at Vicksburg National Historical Park, Hot Springs 
National Park, Natchez Trace Parkway, and Death Valley National 
Monument. Additions to Cabrillo, Capitol Reef and Fort Pulaski 
Sational Monuments and Independence National Historical Park 
rere accomplished by Presidential proclamations. 



346 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI 

Bills introduced in the 86th Congress would authorize boundary 
adjustments at Independence National Historical Park; Fort Donel 
son and Kings Mountain National Military Parks; DeSoto anc 
Wright Brothers National Memorials; Devils Tower, Dinosaur 
Edison Laboratory, Fort Vancouver, and Montezuma Castle Na 
tional Monuments; San Juan National Historic Site; and Moun 
Rainier and Zion National Parks. Another bill would permit us< 
of Federal funds to acquire lands at Antietam National Battlefielc 
Site. 

Officials of the McGraw-Edison Co. have offered to donate Glen 
mont, the home of Thomas A. Edison in West Orange, N. J., t< 
the United States for preservation with the Edison Laboratory 
established as a National Monument in 1956. Negotiations are iiot 
under way looking toward inclusion of the Edison Home in th 
National Monument. 

Advisory and Consultative Assistance 

Forty-six States, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were furnished assist 
ance on 426 occasions on a wide variety of problems. Of specia 
significance is the assistance furnished by the Interpretive Specialis 
who was assigned to the branch in the spring of 1958. He has 
provided interpretive planning assistance in 12 States on 20 oc 
casions, including major projects currently underway in Georgia 
Maryland, Michigan, South Carolina, West Virginia, and in Breaks 
Interstate Park in Kentucky and Virginia. Additionally, he has 
surveyed interpretive programs in 95 State and local areas in 21 
States. There is evidence that State and local park authorities ar< 
becoming increasingly interested in interpretation. 

Cooperation was extended to the National Conference on Stat< 
Parks in a study which was published by the Conference under thi 
title Revenue Bonds for State Park and Recreation Area Develop 
ment — Report on Their Use and Features. This 26-page repor 
with 77 pages of appendices discusses the advantages and disad 
vantages of this method of financing and gives an account of th< 
programs in 12 States. 

Real Property Disposal 

Thirty-three Federal surplus properties totaling 2,095 acres wer< 
recommended to General Services Administration for conveyance 
to the States and their political subdivisions for park, recreation 
and historic monument purposes. The Service now has responsibility 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 347 

! or enforcing compliance with the conditions of the deeds on a 
otal of 145 properties involving 24,383 acres. 

Recommendations were furnished to the Department's Bureau of 
Land Management on 54 applications from State and local agencies 
o acquire public-domain lands for park and recreation purposes. 

7 ark Practice Program 

The program of exchanging park administration practice and 
deas continues to grow. Every State now participates and many 
nunicipal, county, and regional park authorities, as well as private 
>ark and recreation organizations, colleges and universities, and a 
lumber of foreign nations are contributing ideas and participating. 
Municipal and other agencies now comprise more than 40 percent 
)f participant membership ; foreign participation has doubled during 
he past year. Total membership in the full program now exceeds 
50, an increase of 25 percent. 

Much of the material presented through the three publications 
»f the program — Design, Guideline, and Grist — are being quoted 
n other publications and are being used as training materials in 
miversities offering courses in park administration. 

\tate Park Statistics 

The 1958 edition of this annual publication produced in fiscal 
.959 shows that there are 2,335 State parks and related types of 
•ecreation areas embracing 5.4 million acres; that attendance ex- 
ceeded 237 million, including 17 million overnight visitors; that 
he States spent $47 million for operation and maintenance and 
£26 million for capital improvements; and that they employed 
>,691 year-round and 9,982 seasonal employees. Perhaps the most 
significant revelation is the use by 13 million campers, an increase 
)f 24 percent. 

Nationwide Recreation Planning 

The work on nationwide planning for nonurban recreation re- 
ources was concentrated on the inventory of existing recreation 
ireas and the forecasting of future needs. Inventory and evaluation 
)f areas administered by State and local agencies Avas about 85 
percent completed. Work is underway to determine the quantita- 
tive requirements for parks and recreation areas for the years 
L975 and 2000 and to inventory potential areas having outstanding 
recreation resources. 




Thundering surf at Acadia National Park, Maine, brings welcome relie 
and relaxation from the tensions of present day city life. 

Seashore Surveys 

The Pacific Coast Recreation Area Survey was published. Dis 
tribution of the report aroused considerable interest. 

Field studies were completed on the Great Lakes Shoreline Survey 

River Basin and Regional Studies 

Investigations continued on the recreation potentialities of th 
Columbia River Basin, in cooperation with the Recreation Sur. 
committee of the Columbia Basin Inter- Agency Committee, and th 
Delaware River Basin, where draft reports were being prepare 
on portions of the States in the Basin, in cooperation with Stat 
agencies. The report on the Missouri River Basin-Wide Recreatio 
Survey was printed, and the report on recreation resources c 
northwestern California was delivered to the Pacific Southwes 
Field Committee for distribution. 

Special assistance was provided to Hawaii on an inventory o 
existing and potential recreation areas, and preparation of a pla 
for ? system of parks; draft reports were prepared on the recres 
tion potential of Alaska; and assistance was given to Utah an 
Colorado in the formulation of plans for new State park systems 



Reservoir Development and Management 

Work carried on under the provisions of section 8 of the Colorad 
River Storage Act included installing an acting superintendent fc 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



349 



the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area project, opening a tem- 
porary project office at the Wahweap public use development site, 
preparing preliminary master plans for two major public access 
points at the future Flaming Gorge Reservoir and for the Navajo 
Reservoir area, and undertaking negotiations for administration 
of recreation resources of the Navajo Reservoir. 

Recreation reports prepared included general development plans 
for 14 reservoir projects, reconnaissance or planning reports for 5 
projects, annual field review of 36 reservoir recreation areas, and 
special studies of recreation use of 2 reservoir recreation areas, 
Management agreements were negotiated for operation and mainte- 
nance of 10 reservoir recreation areas. 

Recreation Research 

Special studies being made under contract for the Service in- 
cluded (1) a study to provide information on present and future 
needs for organized camping facilities to provide camping oppor- 
tunities for children and young people and (2) the initial stages 
of a study for evaluation of the economic and sociological effects 
of recreation use of three reservoirs in the Missouri River Basin. 

Plans were made for nationwide sample interviewing for contract 
survey work on the extent of interest in nonurban outdoor recrea- 
tion generally and in types of activities requiring publicly owned 
recreation space and facilities in order to help measure long-term 
demand for public parks and recreation areas and the types of 
outdoor-experiences that are sought. 

Administration 

For the third consecutive year under Mission 66, the Service's 
financial position was strengthened in 1959 through appropriation 
increases. There follows a comparison of the 1959 appropriations 
with those for 1958: 



Appropriation item 



1958 fiscal 
year 



1959 fiscal 
year 



Increase (+) 
or 

(-) 



Management and Protection 

Maintenance and Rehabilitation of Physical Facilities 

General Administrative Expenses 

Construction 

Construction (Liquidation of Contract Authorization) 

Total Cash Appropriations 

Construction (Amount by which Roads and Trails and Park' 
ways Contract Authorization exceeds or is less than cash ap 

propriation) 

Total New Obligational Authority 



$14, 527, 094 
11, 663, 786 
1, 390, 650 
17, 400, 000 
31,000,000 
75, 981, 530 



+15, 765, 500 
91, 747, 030 



$16, 056, 200 
12, 477, 100 
1, 429, 300 
20, 000, 000 
SO, 000, 000 
79, 962, 600 



■12,765,500 
67, 197, 100 



+$1, 529, 106 

+813,314 

+38, 650 

+2, 600, 000 

-1,000,000 

+3, 981, 070 



-28, 531, 000 
-24, 549, 930 



350 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

The net decrease in new obligational authority was brought about 
by the advancement of 1959 fiscal year contract authorization for 
roads and trails and parkways construction totaling $14,765,500 
for obligation during the latter part of 1958. This advance enabled 
the Service to get a significant portion of its 1959 roads and trails 
and parkways programs under way prior to commencement of the 
fiscal year. Disregarding this adjustment, new obligational author- 
ity for the 1958 fiscal year totaled $76,981,530 and for 1959 it totaled 
$81,962,600, making a total increase of $4,981,070. 

Improvement in Financial Management 

Progress in the prosecution of the Service's plan for improvement 
in financial management continued throughout the year. The most 
significant achievement in this connection was the implementation 
of the plan and procedures for placing all of the Service's fixed 
assets under accounting control. This project, which includes in- 
ventorying and estimating the cost of all fixed assets acquired or 
developed prior to 1956, when the new accounting system was in- 
stalled, was progressing at the close of the fiscal year and will be 
completed in 1960. Also at the close of the fiscal year, the Accounting 
Handbook was complete in draft form and ready for final review. 



Personnel 

The volume and complexity of personnel work continued the 
steady rate of increase that has been evident since the inception of 
Mission 66. To meet the demands of efficient and effective opera- 
tion with comparatively little increase in staff, further delegation of 
personnel management authority to field officials was found necessary 
and feasible. Increased delegation of authority to Regional Direc- 
tors and the Superintendent of National Capital Parks was effected, 
together with decentralization of personnel folders. This raised 
the delegated authority to the field from GS-11 to GS-13, with the 
exception of Superintendent positions. This also permitted a re- 
organization in the Branch of Personnel, resulting in a strengthened 
Employee Relations staff responsible for functions previously per- 
formed by two sections and in the streamlining of operations in 
the Appointments and Records Unit. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 351 

Merit Promotion Program 

The Service's promotion program was revised to meet the require- 
ments of the Civil Service Commission's and Department's new 
Merit Promotion Program. 

Employee Relations 

Director Wirth was one of 10 recipients of the Career Service 
Award for 1959 presented by the National Civil Service League 
in Washington, D.C. 

The Service's recommendation of a Conservation Service Award 
for Dr. and Mrs. Harold S. Colt on of the Museum of Northern 
Arizona was approved by the Secretary. 

There was increased activity in the suggestion and superior per- 
formance phases of the Incentive Awards Program. 

Employment 

The Mission 66 Staff and the Branch of Personnel developed two 
attractive recruitment brochures, one for the uniformed services 
and the other for the design professions. 

Classification and Wage Matters 

Revised classification standards covering park naturalist positions 
were developed and approved by the Civil Service Commission. 

Necessary position classifications were completed in connection 
with the establishment of the new Branch of Archeology. 

A significant development in wage administration was the enact- 
ment of Public Law 85-872, which requires that wage rate increases 
be made effective within certain time limits after a wage survey is 
ordered. The new Supervisory Pay Plan, which was released by the 
Office of the Secretary in August 1958, was installed. 

Career Development 

As a part of the Service's Management Development Program, two 
Management Development Seminars for National Park Service 
managerial personnel were conducted during the past year. 

The Branch helped arrange and conduct the Twentieth General 
Administration Training Course, held at the Region One Office in 
Richmond, Va., in March 1959, for selected employees regarded as 



352 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

having potential for growth and development in administration. 
The Nineteenth General Administration Training Course was held 
in the Region Four Office in San Francisco, Calif, in October 1958. 



Property and Records Management 

Handbooks were prepared on contracting and procurement, and 
property management, and will soon be distributed to the field. 
Substantial progress continues in establishing adequate records and 
inventories of museum specimens. A Quarters Subsistence and 
Services Handbook was produced and distributed. At Yellowstone 
National Park an experiment is being tried in operating a self- 
service storehouse for perishable foodstuffs with a view to increasing 
efficiency and economy. If successful, the system will be extended to 
additional items and other parks. 

Records Management 

It was a progressive year in paperwork management. The Rec- 
ords Management Section participated in Records Management 
Workshop conferences conducted by the Department. A Directives 
Management Handbook was written establishing an integrated direc- 
tives system. A Forms Management Handbook was written extend- 
ing the forms program to the field. A listing of all Bureau forms, 
with reference to the directive for each form, was published, resulting 
in the elimination of 51 forms. Two workshops, Form Improvement 
and Records Disposition, are being given Servicewide. Handbooks 
being written at the year's end include Correspondence Procedure 
Reports Management; Files Management; and Records Scheduling 
and Disposition. 



Safety 

The Branch of Safety is making every effort to further organize 
and develop a more effective safety program to cover not only 
National Park Service employees and operations but visitors, con- 
cessioners' and contractors' employees and operations. 

Visitor- Accident Fatalities 

The visitor-accident fatality rate was reduced 16.3 percent. This 
is the third year in succession in which the fatality rate has been 




Park views leave unforgettable memories to millions of visitors. 

mder one per million visitors. In 1958 there were 36 visitor 
atalities which resulted in a ratio of 0.61 per million visitors, the 
owest rate in the 12 years that such reports have been compiled. 
Df the 36 fatalities, 17 were drownings and 12 resulted from motor 
vehicle accidents. 

3ear Incidents 

Thirty-nine persons were reported having been bitten or scratched 
?y bears during the 1958 season. This compared with 91 reported 
or the 1957 season, 109 in 1956, and 76 in 1955. Bears were responsi- 
ve for 117 property damages during 1958 as compared to 126 in 
L957, 106 in 1956, and 112 in 1955. 



Motor Boat Activities 

As a result of the Federal Boating Act of 1958, safety codes as 
ipplicable to motor boat operations in parks are being developed. 
Also, in cooperation with the Coast Guard Auxiliary, safety instruc- 
ion courses are being set up in parks where motor boating is a 
najor activity. 



354 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO 

Safety Committee 

Practically all of the areas administered by the National Par 
Service either have active safety committees or someone of the sta 
designated to handle safety program activities. The Region Thrt 
Office organized and conducted the first Bureau safety seminar 
Grand Canyon National Park, with excellent results. The firs 
meeting of the National Park Safety Planning Committee submitte 
recommendations for improving the Service's safety program. 

Operations 

The year was marked by continued progress in providing add 
tional public accommodations and improved services in the part 
and by substantial gains in acquiring lands needed for park purpose 
In addition, programming methods and procedures have been in 
proved and the increased maintenance responsibilities resulting froi 
facilities provided under Mission 66 are necessitating a "new look 
at maintenance practices and techniques. It is believed that th 
results achieved will contribute materially to making the Nations 
Park System more enjoyable for the increasing number of visitoi 
each year. 

Public Works Planning 

Meetings of the Departmental Public Works Planning Committe 
were attended to discuss methods of initiating and administerin 
a public works program in event of a National Emergency, 
developed that the Service could contribute by producing a prograr 
of park projects within a thirty day period based on the Missio 
66 Control Schedules. A program of projects which could be starte 
within a twelve month period was prepared based on these schedule 
and on information received from the field. This program wa 
submitted to the Committee. 



Mission 66 Control Schedules 

The Mission 66 Control Schedules for park developments wer 
revised to reflect the addition of new areas, additional facilitie 
needed to accommodate an estimated additional 10 million visitor 
during the Mission 66 period, and increased costs since the last sub 
mission. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 355 

idvance Development Programs 

To further facilitate the crystallization of ideas on the numerous 
letails connected with development it Avas decided to prepare detailed 
nnual programs for an additional year beyond the budget year, 
or a total of 3 years instead of 2. These data provide the basis 
or orderly sequence of development; for detailed studies of indi- 
vidual projects; for obtaining survey data and for the preparation 
f preliminary plans. Each of these annual programs is tentative 
vhen first compiled, becomes progressively firmer as studies develop 
nd is well established when due for submission with the annual 
stimates. 



Maintenance 

Maintenance and operational responsibilities of park staffs con- 
inue to increase at a rapid pace as additional facilities are com- 

leted under the construction phase of Mission 66. The increase is 
lot only in numbers but more significantly is caused by the added 
complexity of the problems, particularly in respect to buildings and 
itilities which incorporate in their design many new materials and 
quipment requiring a wide variety of new maintenance practices, 
)rocedures and techniques. 




^ew cottages for the use of park visitors are constantly being added to the 
>ark System by private industry under Mission 66. 



356 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO] 

The season in many parks has been materially extended by keepin 
the roads open later in the fall and opening them earlier in th 
spring. In other parks additional roads are being kept open on 
year-round basis. Operational efficiency in snow removal has bee 
further improved by the acquisition of modern equipment. 

Concession Authorizations 

Sixteen concession contracts were negotiated. These included con 
struction programs for Shenandoah, Yosemite El Portal administra 
tive site, and Glen Canyon National Recreation Area, representin 
investments totaling about $2.75 million dollars. Highlights in thi 
field were the conclusion of contracts with the District of Columbi 
Armory Board for the construction and operation of a stadium oi 
the East Capital Street site, and the Virginia Sky-Line Co., Inc 
providing for a $2-million improvement program at Shenandoa 
National Park. 



Prospectuses 

Nine prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for the operatio 
of facilities at Lake Mead, Mount Rainer, Hot Springs, Canyo 
de Chelly, Rocky Mountain, and Great Smoky Mountains. Authori 
zations have been negotiated as a result of the prospectus for Grea 
Smoky Mountains and Glacier Basin saddle livery at Rocky Moui 
tain, and offers have resulted from the Lake Mead and Mouri 
Rainier prospectuses. 

Concessioners' Improvements 

The Yosemite Park & Curry Co.'s new Village Store, restauran 
and other structures, costing about $800,000 were dedicated on May 
and the new warehouse and utilities buildings were completed at 
cost of about $700,000. Degnan, Donohoe, Inc., also completed it 
new restaurant and delicatessen at an approximate cost of $750,00( 
Completion of these structures allowed removal of the Old Villag 
building complex and restoration of the area to its natural conditioi 
In addition, concessioner improvement programs were completed a 
Big Bend, Crater Lake, Bryce Canyon, Everglades, Glacier, Gran 
Canyon, Grand Teton, Hot Springs, Mammoth Cave, Mount M( 
Kinley, Sequoia, Shenandoah, and Yellowstone National Parks 
Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Cayon de Chelly, Death Valley, an 
Petrified Forest National Monuments; Blue Ridge Parkway; Cap 
Hatteras National Seashore: Lake Mead National Recreation Area 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 357 

and National Capital Parks, with investments totaling approxi- 
mately $2,500,000. 

Other Concession Activities 

Because of widespread opposition to the plan to remove concession 
facilities from the East Side of Kocky Mountain National Park, a 
study was made resulting in recommendations, approved by the As- 
sistant Secretary, that certain facilities be retained. 

A committee consisting of representatives from each Regional 
Dffice, and a concessioner and park employee from each Region, has 
been established to study the Service souvenir policy. 

An arrangement was completed with the Eastern National Park 
ind Monument Association for the operation of the Jamestown 
Glasshouse interpretive exhibit through a joint cooperative agree- 
ment. 

Land Acquisition 

During the year $2,400,000 was made available for land acquisition, 
rf which $900,000 was donated. Some 78,816.98 acres of inholdings 
vere acquired by purchase, donation, transfer or exchange. 

Donations of land included: 4,000 acres from the State of North 

arolina for Cape Hatteras National Seashore; 2,040 acres from the 
State of Alabama and the Alabama Power Co. to comprise the 
lorseshoe Bend National Military Park, Ala. ; and the Grant's Tomb 
ite of 0.76 acres from the city of New York and the Tomb struc- 
ure from the Grant Monument Association to comprise the General 
jrant National Memorial, established on May 1, 1959. 

The Minute Man National Historic Site, designated as such by 
Secretarial order, April 14, 1959, comprises 8.08 acres of U.S. land 
ransferred from the Laurence G. Hanscom Air Force Base. 

Completed purchases and approved options cover some 7,155 
cres in Glacier, Grand Teton, Lassen Volcanic, Rocky Mountain, 
/irgin Islands, and Yosemite National Parks; Badlands, Effigy 
lounds, Joshua Tree, Muir Woods, Petrified Forest, and Whitman 
National Monuments; Fredericksburg, Gettysburg, and Shiloh Na- 
ional Military Parks, Independence National Historical Park ; Cape 
latteras National Seashore; and Theodore Roosevelt National 
lemorial Park. 

At Everglades National Park, the United States conveyed 51,000 
cres of land and water to the State of Florida and received in 
xchange 100,741 acres, a net addition of 49,741 acres of land. 



358 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Water Resources and Water Rights 

Two regional units were established, thus giving four of the five 
regional offices basic water resources and water rights organizations 
for operation under delegated authority. The Department's Geologi- 
cal Survey investigated water resources in 16 parks and monuments 
to find ground water supplies or define water rights. Three similar 
investigations were made under contracts. Two parcels of land were 
purchased with wells or well sites, and 70 exploratory and test 
wells were drilled. Two water rights were licensed, approximately 
25 extensions of time in which to make proof were obtained, and 
public hearings were held on two water right cases. Surveys anc 
analyses were continued to obtain water right data for appropriative 
water claims. 

Design and Construction 

In fiscal 1959, $43,682,832 were available for the construction pro- 
grams of the National Park Service, including carry-over balances 
from fiscal 1958. By June 30, 85.8 percent of these funds had beer 
obligated, and four hundred twenty-one individual construction con 
tracts were awarded. A large number of day-labor projects also were 
completed. To help offset the shortage of design office personnel, 
number of contracts for professional architectural and engineering 
services were consummated. 



Roads and Trails 

Major road projects completed during the fiscal year amounted t< 
117 miles of reconstruction or new construction at a cost of $8,151,000 
Projects totaling $5,852,560 were started during the year and ai 
additional $8,635,000 was obligated prior to the start of the fisca 
year under advance contract authorization. This $14,487,560 fo 
new projects added to the $5,008,000 of previous years projects whicl 
are approaching completion gives a total of work under constructioi 
of $19,495,560. 

Completion of the final stages on three park routes — the James 
town Tour Road of 4.6 .miles in Colonial National Historical Park 
the Heart O 'Hills Eoad of 6 miles in Olympic National Park anc 
the 9.2 mile entrance road at Arches National Monument — opened 2< 
miles of new roadway to the public. Reconstruction projects cover 
ing 227 miles of roadway and bridges were also completed. 

The major projects placed under contract during the year were 
Construction of the Thornton Gap Interchange and approaches a 
Shenandoah National Park ; reconstruction of 1.679 miles of Unioi 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 359 



NO VACANCY 

>LE ASE DO NOT ENTER 

THIS CAMPGROUND IS NOW OCCUPIED 
THIS CA»K« „ ADJkrrrv - ADDITION*. 



W»LL OVERTAX SAN.TARV™ 
THE FOLLOi 




CADES COVE 



'he ever-increasing number of visitors often taxes campgrounds beyond 
leir capacity. The "No Vacancy" sign directs campers to other sites in 
le area where they may pitch their tents. Mission 66 is designed to 
ileviate congestion caused by years of earlier park neglect. 

.venue at Vicksburg National Military Park; 6.5 miles of the 
ntrance Road at Mesa Verde National Park, 13.7 miles of paving 
m the Lassen Peak Highway at Lassen Volcanic National Park; 
5 miles of reconstruction on the South Entrance Road at Zion 
ational Park; 4,198 miles of reconstruction on the Jackson Lake 
oad at Grand Teton National Park ; and the construction of grade 
jparations on 14th Street and the Mall in the National Capital 
arks in Washington, D.C. 

Minor roads and trails projects totaling approximately $4,500,000 
ere started. A few of the larger projects under contract for con- 
duction are the Bodie Island Entrance Road at Cape Hatteras 
ational Seashore Recreational Area, amounting to $377,179; a 
rade separation, structure and connecting roads, amounting to 
393,275, at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, a parking 
rea for the new Visitor Center, in the amount of $155,668 and the 
'our Loop Road amounting to $260,690 at Saratoga National 
istorical Park. 

During fiscal 1959, approximately 120 projects were under contract 
l minor roads and trails. An additional 5,300 vehicle parking 
)aces were gained during the year. 



arkways 

The 1959 fiscal year again saw the National Parkways program 
mtinue at a high rate of construction on the Blue Ridge, Natchez 



360 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO 

Trace, Foothills and George Washington Memorial Parkways. Tr 
work was concentrated on closing gaps of Parkway construction an 
to provide additional visitor facilities along the completed section 
A $16 million contract authorization was provided by the Federa 
Aid Highway Act of 1958, of which $6,264,600 was programed to tr. 
Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina and Virginia; $1,000,000 fc 
Foothills Parkway in Tennessee; $2,858,600 for George Washingto 
Memorial Parkway in Virginia and Maryland; $5,260,300 fc 
Natchez Trace Parkway in Alabama, Mississippi, and Tennessee 
$216,500 for Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway in the District 
Columbia and $400,000 for advance planning. 

The third year of Mission 66 also saw the largest number 
project completions of major work since the National Parkways pr 
gram was initiated in 1933. This represented 33 individual maj< 
projects with a total value of approximately $15,000,000 including 
miles of paving, 59 miles of repaving, 39 miles of grading and ba 
course, 31 bridges and grade separations, tunnel lining and extei 
sions, slope stabilization and guardwalls. 

Two outstanding projects completed included an 11 -mile section 
the Blue Ridge Parkway in North Carolina extending southeastwai 
from Wolf Laurel Gap through the Cherokee Indian Reservatic 
into Great Smoky Mountains National Park, which marks the sout 
ern entrance to the Parkway, and a 4-mile section of the northboui 
lane of the Gatlinburg Spur along the west side of the West For 
Little Pigeon River of the Foothills Parkway. 

Completion under the minor roads, buildings and utilities Par 
way program included the Peaks of Otter, Va., information cent 
on the Blue Ridge Parkway, numerous public service features on t 
Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways such as additional pier 
ground facilities, campground roads, trails, comfort stations, maint 
nance buildings and utility systems and several employee resident 

As of June 30, 45 major contracts totaling approximate 
$24,800,000 were in process under the Bureau of Public Roads pi 
gram, including 68 miles of paving, 97 miles of grading and ba 
course, 52 bridges and grade separations, and other work. 

Under the authority of the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 19 
field studies were carried out jointly by the Bureau of Public Roa 
and National Park Service in Louisiana on the location of the Gre 
River Road. Thus far, nine of the ten Mississippi River Stat 
have been furnished advisory services. 

Buildings 

The building construction program continued with emphasis 
providing visitor facilities in the National Parks and Monumen 




~; f r* 




■■■■■•-• 



here is no finer recreational and educational activity than camping in 
Le great outdoors. Mission 66 is adding new camping grounds to the 
ational Park System. 

isitor Centers, important to interpretation of the parks, were 
mpleted or were under construction at Abraham Lincoln, Hopewell 
illage, Pipestone, Moores Creek, Badlands, Mammoth Cave, Theo- 
>re Roosevelt, Bryce Canyon, Moose, Grand Teton; Fort Union, 
on, Cumberland Gap, George Washington Carver, Wright 
rothers, Parachute Key, Everglades; Death Valley, and Great 
naoky Mountains. Plans are nearing completion for Visitor 
enters and administration buildings at Gettysburg, Fort Donelson, 
id Mound City Group. 

The progress in the restoration of historic buildings is best ex- 
iplified in the Independence National Historical Park where 
Hall, in Carpenters Court, has been reconstructed and the 
erchants Exchange Building, one of the historic buildings desig- 
ned to be restored and retained, has been rehabilitated to provide 
Eices for Region Five and the Eastern Office, Division of Design 
id Construction. The last major demolition contract for removing 
mhistoric buildings has been awarded with completion scheduled 
r late this fall. 

Emergency measures were taken to protect Congress Hall in 
[dependence Square from threatened collapse following damages 
stained in the heavy snows of the previous year. 
A total of 406 miscellaneous buildings were rehabilitated or con- 
tacted at a cost of $9,700,000. 



362 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOI 

The housing situation in parks and monuments was further im- 
proved by the provision of 107 permanent and 75 seasonal units 
programed during the 1959 fiscal year. 

An agreement was reached with the city of St. Louis and th< 
Terminal Eailroad for the relocation of the elevated railroad tracks 
between the Memorial and the Mississippi River levee at Jeffersor 
National Expansion Memorial in St. Louis and a contract wa 
awarded in the amount of $2,421,000 for this work. The develop 
ment cost for this project is shared by the city of St. Louis an< 
other contributed funds in the ratio of $1 of non-Federal for eacl 
$3 of Federal funds. The present schedule of construction is predi 
cated upon completion of the entire project, estimated to tota 
$22,500,000, in time for the proposed sesquicentennial celebratio: 
in 1963. 

New impetus was given to the Historic American Buildings Sui 
vey in its second year of resumed recording activity. A unit wa 
established in the Western Office, Division of Design and Construe 
tion, in San Francisco, and in collaboration with the Universit 
of California produced measured drawings and photo-data boo' 
of a number of historically important structures in California. Thi 
unit will continue during the present year with the assistance of 
supervisor and a student measuring team. 

A supplement to the Catalog of the Measured Drawings and Phote 
graphs in the Library of Congress, listing and describing materh 
added to the collection since March 1, 1941, was compiled an 
published. The Specifications for the Measurement and Recordin 
of Historic American Buildings and Structural Remains was r 
vised and distributed. 

The Building Construction Handbook was completed, printed an 
distributed to the field. This handbook prescribes regulations go 
erning the planning, location, construction, alteration, repair, movir 
and demolition of buildings in the National Park System. 

Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures 

The Service is continuing the progress of improving utilities ar 
miscellaneous structures as reflected in the following general st 
tistics : 

There were approximately 677 additional campsites in 25 cam 
grounds, this included newly developed campgrounds and additio 
to existing ones. There were 90 water systems and 76 sewage s} 
terns completed. These projects increase water storage faciliti 
by 3,400,000 gallons, all representing a capital investment of a 
proximately $2,705,000. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 363 



{[aster Plans 



Emphasis is continuing on the preparation of Master Plan draw- 
ngs on a schedule which will assure thorough studies of develop- 
nent needs in relation to current and future management require- 
nents well in advance of the establishment of firm programs. Over 
00 preliminary and final Master Plan drawings were prepared. 

An important step was taken toward the integration of the Mis- 
ion 66 Prospectus and other planning documents into the Master 
Ian. In its new format, the Master Plan will become a more effec- 
ive instrument in establishing and defining the broad objectives, 
policies, and requirements for all elements of the park program. 

Office of Audits 

Of major importance during the year was a comprehensive study 
)f the Service's audit policies and practices which was conducted by 

Departmental committee. Following recommendations of this 
ommittee, the audit scope has been changed to place primary 
mphasis on accounting and financial matters rather than manage- 
nent aspects. Other recommendations dealt with improving the 
"ffectiveness of report distribution and taking follow-up action by 
idministrative officials. < * 

During the year more than 40 reports were issued, eliminating a 
mcklog on hand at the year's start. To comply with the survey 
ecommendations will entail a 2 to 3-year audit cycle. Experience 
inder the new program shows an urgent need for additional auditors 
o achieve this goal. • 



National Capital Parks 

An Employee Relations and Training Officer was hired in August 
1958. Training courses for maintenance, United States Park Police 
md, history section personnel were conducted. There was created 
n November 1958 a Board of United States Civil Service Examiners 
:o hold competitive examinations for positions peculiar to this .office. 

. * r ' ■ ..- ■■■ 

Visitor Services ^ 

Intensive use of the parks continue^ creating heavy demands on 
personnel and park facilities. An estimated 45 million perspns 
used the facilities and services provided by the National Capital 
Parks; more than 5 million visitors were counted at the five 



■a' I, 



364 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO 

national memorials; there were 267 special events attended by ove 
2 million persons; park naturalists and historians served approx 
mately 300,000 people, and nearly 6 million listened to interprets 
recordings or participated in self -guided tours. 



Protection 

Criminal complaints handled by the United States Park Polic 
increased about 8.5 percent and noncriminal complaints were u 
nearly 25 percent over fiscal year 1958. Some 1,500 traffic warnin 
tickets were issued and there were upwards of 25,000 arrests an 
citations involving adults. In the Semi-annual Firearms Qualifica 
tion Program, 99 percent of the Force qualified for medal awards 
The recently announced Promotion Competition Program was re 
ceived with enthusiasm and steps have been taken to put it into effed 
J 

Physical Improvements 

Some 200 plans relating to developments were prepared an< 
nearly $4 million were expended on about 60 contracts. Much tim 
was spent in Analyzing highway plans of other agencies, e.g. ap 
proaches to Jrotomac bridges, the /Inner Loop and the Glover 
Archbold Parkway, and in preparing proposals to minimize thei 
impact on the parks. Horticultural activities included planting o 
thousands of trees and shrubs, salvaging of top soil, and improving 
neighborhood parks. Major construction included two stables, sev 
eral bridges, road realinement and paving in Rock Creek Park 
reroofing of Linc&ln Memorial ; rehabilitation of the Washingtoi 
Monument elevator; repairs and stabilization at Fort Washington 
Custis-Lee Mansion and the Old Stone House: and extension o: 
the George Washington Memorial Parkway. 

Research and planning 

Contracts have been let for the construction of the Rock Creel 
Xature Center, for continuance of grading and surfacing of portion; 
of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in Maryland anc 
Virginia, and structures at Prince William Forest and Catoctii 
Mountain Parks. Historical research has been conducted at For 
Washington, Custis-Lee Mansion, House Where Lincoln Died, anc 
the Old Stone House. Studies were made on a land acquisitioi 
problem at Great Falls and for extension of the George Washingtoi 
Memorial Parkway to Woodlawn and beyond. Development plan; 
are under way for a mechanical maintenance shop headquarters, anc 
a park operations building. 

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1960 O -539468 



•- 



ANNUAL REPORT 



of the DIRECTOR 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



to the 



SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



Reprinted from the 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY 

OF THE INTERIOR— FRED A. SEATON 

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1960 





National Park Service 

bnrad L. Wirth, Director 




'HE YEAR ENDING JUNE 30, 1960, was a notable one for the 
■tonal Park Service. An exceptional record of accomplishments 
as made in new and improved facilities and services in the parks and 
onuments, with new areas added to the System, an increase in the 
rofessional staff in the field, and wide public approval for the Mission 
> program. 

At the biannual conference of the Service in Williamsburg, Virginia, 
l December 1959, an event of transcendent importance to the National 
ark Service was the receipt of a directive from Secretary of the 
iterior Fred A. Seaton. 

The Secretary lauded the achievements of the National Park Serv- 
e in its Mission 66 program — designed to meet the needs of increasing 
sitation in the National Parks and the pressures of a population 
explosion " on our natural resources — and added : "Because of the sit- 
ation which America confronts in this respect, I ask * * * the Na- 
onal Park Service to give high priority to a program of studying and 
lentifying areas which should be preserved for the enjoyment and 
ispiration of all the people * * * These should include seashores, 
enic mountain areas, prairie grasslands, places of national import- 
ice in our history, and other nationally significant * * * areas." 
Secretary Seaton 's directions included : development of a plan for a 
rstem of reserve areas from which future generations may draw for 
eeded parks and recreation areas; the establishments of new parks, 
lonuments, recreation areas, and historic sites to complete the Na- 
onal Park System and meet the growing need for such areas at the 
ational level ; put into effect programs for the most efficient use of 
le Service organization, and training and career development of its 
ersonnel ; encourage and assist in the establishment and development 
f State park systems, and other public lands recreational opportuni- 

275 



276 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTER! 

ties; keep clearly in view the importance of preserving true wildern 
areas in the System for future generations ; and to keep uppermost 
mind the directive of the Congress when establishing the Natio: 
Park Service in 1916 : "to conserve the scenery and the natural a 
historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enj< 
ment of the same in such manner and by such means as will lei 
them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations." 

The Mission 66 program — now in its fifth year — was launched 
July 1, 1956, for the purpose of staffing and equipping the Natio 
Park System to care for an estimated 80 million visitors in 196( 
the year the National Park Service will celebrate the 50th anniverss 
of its establishment. 

The year again showed an increase in total public visits to j 
parks and monuments, from 60,554,000 in fiscal 1959 to 65,959,000 
1960. This follows the trend of previous years and necessita 
stepped up planning for further renovation, conservation and ad 
tional facilities to meet the demands of coming years. 

During the year the National Park Service began evaluating j 
accomplishments and experiences of the Mission 66 program to d 
and measuring them against the overall goals. The Service v 
put the resultant new ideas and thoughts into workable plans wh 
will be a guide in revamping the Mission 66 program, profiting fr< 
lessons of the past and geared to anticipated needs. 

Hence, Mission 66 began a study to determine what would hi 
to be accomplished in addition to its original program to attain 
objectives set for 1966, and to fulfill the purpose for which the I 
tional Park Service was established in 1916 : "to conserve the scen< 
and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife * * * and 
provide for the enjoyment of the same in such manner and by si 
means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of futi 
generations." 

The Mission 66 program is not only concerned with the large-sc 
development of new and improved visitor facilities, the reconstr 
tion of roads and trails, and the laying out of campgrounds, 
equally emphasizes the preservation of the great wilderness areas 
the National Parks and Monuments — America's priceless heritage 

During the 12-month period, 1,252 active projects were under c< 
struction involving an investment of approximately $105,237,$ 
including new and improved campsites and visitor centers. Duri 
this period 528 projects representing an investment of ab 
$38,000,000 were completed and opened for public use. 

Since Mission 66 was launched, 3,357 construction projects invo 
ing an investment of $213,000,000 have been completed or are un< 
construction. In addition, private capital invested some $20,000,( 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 277 

the construction of public accommodations and related service 
cilities. 

Camping increased and continued to tax facilities. Of 4,829,000 
corded camper-days, 11 percent were spent under conditions in 
cess to the capacity of the parks' campgrounds. The trend in trailer- 
mping also showed an upward curve with more than one in five 
mper-days spent in trailers. 

To manage the enlarged operations and extended activities in the 
rstem, and to meet the need resulting from the greatly increasing 
imber of visitors, additional employees were hired and trained to 
gment the park and monument personnel which at the end of the 
cal year totaled 4778 permanent employees, while during the height 

the visitor-season another 3724 seasonal employees were on the 
lis of the National Park Service. 

Major road projects placed under contract during the year totaled 
,181,413, which involved 108 miles of reconstructed roads. A total 

83 miles of reconstructed park routes were completed at a cost 

$9,883,900. 

The legislative phase of the National Park Service's program is an 
-important one. Under the guidance of the Administration and the 
apartment, the Service obtained gratifying results in the form of 
agression al action throughout the year. 

Legislation was enacted authorizing the establishment of three new 
rks. The events relating to the beginning of the American Revolu- 
>n are to be preserved at Minute Man National Historical Park, 
assachusetts. Bent's Old Fort in Colorado, a fort and trading post 
lportant in the opening of the west, is authorized to be made a na- 
>nal historic site. The Civil War battle which climaxed the cam- 
ign to keep Missouri in the Union will be commemorated through the 
"ablishment of Wilsons Creek Battlefield National Park. 
Highly important is the enactment of law by which there may be 
moved the threat of adverse developments at the Antietam Na- 
>nal Battlefield Site, Maryland. Authority was granted to acquire 
acres of land and to further preserve the historic scene by obtain- 
g covenants, restrictions, or easements on an additional 1017 acres. 
Much needed authority was provided to carry out the Mission 66 
ogram for Mount Rainier National Park, which involves moving 
e headquarters from Longmire to Ashf ord, Washington, outside the 
irk. 

Important boundary legislation was enacted for Zion National 
irk, Utah; Custis-Lee Mansion, Virginia; Fort Laramie National 
onument, Wyoming; and Stones River National Battlefield, Ten- 
-ssee. In all 27 laws directly affecting the National Park Service 
ere enacted in fiscal year 1960. 



278 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERN 

In addition to legislation affecting areas of the National Pa: 
System, Congress enacted Public Law 86-523 which reiterates ai 
strengthens the Federal government's policy for the preservatk 
of archeological and historical data which might otherwise be lo 
as the result of dam and reservoir construction. 

Other measures still pending in Congress which are especial 
important are the proposals to establish national seashores, to crea 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park, to revi 
the boundary and provide an entrance road to Dinosaur Nation 
Monument, and to acquire the Storer College property for additi< 
to Harpers Ferry National Monument. 

The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, as a pa 
of the Mission 66 program, showed considerable progress. Complet< 
were the following studies: Prehistoric Hunters and Gatherer 
English Exploration and Settlement to 1700; Development of t' 
English Colonies 1700-1775; Political and Military Affairs, 1761 
1830 ; The Civil War, 1861-1865 ; as well as a number of subthem 
in Westward Expansion: The Cattlemens Empire; Military ar 
Indian Affairs; The Farming Frontier; the Texas Revolution ai 
War with Mexico; Overland Migrations West of the Mississipp 
and two special studies — Fort De Soto, and Fort Union and t 
Santa Fe Trail. 

Largely on the basis of funds donated to the Service by the Socie 
of the Lees of Virginia and others, the Service was able to purcha 
the Middleton Collection of Lee memorabilia, from the estate of t 
late Mrs. Robert E. Lee, 3d. The collection, comprising over 2< 
pieces of furniture, crested, silverware, glassware, chinaware, et 
once belonging to General Robert E. Lee, will now be permanent 
preserved at the Custis-Lee Mansion National Memorial in Arlingto 

To accomplish its program for archeological investigations 
Service areas and for salvage of archeological data in reservoir are 
throughout the nation, the Service negotiated contracts with Sta 
and local institutions totalling $328,500. An additional $122,0( 
was transferred to the Smithsonian Institution for archeologic 
salvage work in the Missouri River Basin and in the Walter 
George reservoir (Ala.-Ga.). 

Interpretation 

The interpretive program of the National Park Service provide 
additional educational services during the past year to the eve 
increasing number of visitors to the parks, monuments and oth 
areas. 

Total visits to the units of the National Park System increase 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 279 

>m 58 million in 1958 to nearly 63 million during 1959. Under the 
ssion 66 program, facilities for visitor comfort, information, in- 
pretation as well as inspiration have increased and were substan- 
lly improved during the past several years and this trend continued 
ring the past year. 

Slew visitor centers were added to the system and the museum 
lections were enriched by accession of valuable objects, such as a 
lica of the 1902 glider used by Orville and Wilbur Wright at 
tty Hawk, N.C. 

Special events continued to emphasize the importance of the 
tion's outstanding historic sites, an example of which was the first 
cial raising of the 49-star flag at Fort McHenry National Monument 
d Historic Shrine at Baltimore on July 4, 1959. Other important 
3cial events were the celebration incident to the acceptance of lands 
r Pea Ridge National Military Park and the celebration at Getty s- 
rg and Abraham Lincoln Birthplace in connection with the Lincoln 
squicentennial program. 

rvice to the Public 

The interpretive services program continued to offer park visitors 

ide and lecture services by skilled and experienced naturalists, 

3torians, and archeologists — suppiemented by new automatic audio- 

sual presentations, museum exhibits, self-guiding trails, wayside 

hibits, and interpretive signs and markers. 

This public service added not only to the park visitor's enjoyment 

it provided an understanding of the natural and historic environ- 

pt, which lead to important benefits — a greater appreciation of 

nservation concepts. 

The earthquake in Yellowstone National Park and the eruption of 

ilauea Volcano in Hawaii National Park provided outstanding 

>portunities for vivid interpretation of geologic events which were 

lly utilized and which will play major roles in future interpretive 

'ograms of both national parks. 

Some 48 nonprofit scientific and historical societies contributed 

!7,896 for aid to the National Park Service in 1959 for research, 

aterial and equipment and library purchases in its interpretive 

rogram. 

'isitor Centers 

Visitor centers, constructed under Mission 66, are outstanding 
matures of the parks and monuments and contain much appreciated 
icilities to help visitors obtain greater benefit and enjoyment from 
leir park visits. 



,-%*-4*.i^t-5*f* m 




- t\Z.- 



Geysers in Yellowstone National Park, an attractive feature to the ever-increasin 
number of visitors to the park, reacted violently to the August 1959 earthquake 
and many changed their pattern of behavior. 

Nine more of these multiple-use buildings were opened to the publi 
during the fiscal year, including centers at Arches National Monu 
ment, Utah ; Bryce Canyon National Park, Utah ; George Washingtoi 
Carver National Monument, Mo. ; Grand Teton National Park, Wyo. 
Mammoth Cave National Park, Ky. ; Montezuma Castle Nationa 
Monument, Ariz.; Mound City Group National Monument, Ohio 
Zion National Park, Utah; and National Capital Parks in Wash 
ington, D.C. 

Story-telling exhibits were installed in 12 visitor centers and amonj 
these the exhibits for the Eock Creek Nature Center in Washington 
D.C, had the additional feature of being designed particularly fo 
students and school children. This center also contains a planetarium 
an assembly room and an exhibit room with "work-it-yourself" am 
living displays. 



Roadside and Trailside Interpretation 

During the 1960 fiscal year, facilities to guide the visitor along th 
roadsides and trailsides in many of the parks were expanded. Road 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 281 

ie exhibits for the entire park were completed at Fredericksburg- 
jotsylvania National Military Park. Important new roadside or 
lyside exhibits were also completed on the Natchez Trace Parkway, 
Fort Frederica National Monument, in Rocky Mountain National 
irk, at Navajo National Monument, and in Olympic National Park. 
New interpretive signs and markers were completed at Fort Fred- 
ica National Monument, Fredericksburg-Spotsylvania National 
ilitary Park, Abraham Lincoln National Historical Park, George 
ashington Carver National Monument, Grand Teton National 
irk, Scotts. Bluff National Monument, Craters of the Moon National 
onument, Olympic National Park, and Isle Royale National Park. 

udto Visual Planning and Installation 

The quality and number of audiovisual interpretive programs, sup- 
ementing personal services, advanced greatly during the fiscal year, 
ie use of professional script writers and narrators, coupled with 
iproved electronic equipment and production techniques, resulted 

higher quality presentations. 

Fully automatic slide-sound equipment was installed in 15 visitor 
titers and 6 new amphitheaters, and 29 audio stations were placed 

operation. Loudspeakers were being replaced at audio stations 
' captioned slides and handphones, reducing the disturbance made 
r the loudspeakers. 

\useum Program 

During the year park staffs evaluated and catalogued more than 
1,000 museum items, bringing the records up to date and allowing the 
ansfer of items needed for display in new visitor centers. 
Equipment needed for the safe storage of museum specimens was 
irchased for 62 parks. Of particular significance, specialists under- 
•ok the restoration of the Gettysburg cyclorama and the ceiling mural 
\ the Senate Chamber in Congress Hall, Independence National 
istorical Park. 

Public-spirited citizens donated museum items of considerable value, 
>tably 16th century objects for Castillo de San Marcos and Fort 
aroline, and objects closely associated with the Wright Brothers and 
eorge Washington Carver. 

The National Museum, the Air Force Museum, the Ohio State Mu- 
ium and other institutions generously lent or transferred museum 
ems to museums of the National Park Service. 



282 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERK 




Reenactments of Americans historic events, like this one at Harpers Ferry Natiot 
Monument, recall our Nation's glorious past and heighten the visitors' interest. 



Research 

Archeological, geological and historical research was continu 
throughout the fiscal year, among others, in the Virgin Islands; 
Effigy Mounds, Iowa ; Sequoia-Kings Canyon, Calif. ; Death Valley 
Calif, and Nev. ; Joshua Tree, Calif.; Harpers Ferry, W. Va., ai 
Md. ; Jefferson Expansion National Memorial, Mo.; Independen 
Hall National Historical Park in Philadelphia, Pa. ; Theodore Roos 
velt National Memorial Park, N. Dak. ; and Wetherill Mesa in Me 
Verde, Colo. 

The National Park Service also carried on an extensive archeologic 
salvage program in 29 reservoir areas under cooperative agreemen 
with the Smithsonian Institution and 31 State and local institutior 
In the Missouri River basin, the Smithsonian Institution put foi 
parties in the field. Surveys and excavations in the Glen Canyc 
and Navajo Reservoirs — now under construction in the Upper Col 
rado River basin — were conducted by the University of Utah and tl 










lockslides caused by earthquakes in Yellowstone National Park in August, 1959, 
equired extensive repairs to roads and buildings, amounting to several million 
lollars. 



Museums of Northern Arizona and New Mexico. The University of 

exas carried on several projects in the Iron Bridge and Ferrells 
bridge Keservoirs in Texas. 

Geological research in corporation with the Department's Geological 
Survey involved studies in glaciology as well as geologic mapping in 

lacier, Mount Rainier and Grand Canyon National Parks. In the 
)iological sciences, the Service continued the study of elk of Jackson 
Sole, Wyo., and the study of wolves and moose on Isle Eoyale in 
Michigan. Ecological studies were conducted in California in Joshua 
>ee National Monument and in Death Valley National Monument a 
tudy on big horn sheep continued. Marine biology studies con- 
inued also at Everglades and Virgin Islands National Parks. 

Historical research was inaugurated at San Juan National Historic 
Site and architectural research in the Virgin Islands, while exhaustive 
•esearch continued at Independence National Historical Park and at 
larpers Ferry National Monument. 



569553 0—61- 



-19 



284 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIO 

Wildlife 

The mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fishes in areas of tl 
National Park System continue to be of prime visitor interest. Tl 
perpetuation of all native animals in their natural environment 
a primary objective of the National Park Service and cooperate 
research by qualified institutions and individuals, such as the researe 
on grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park by the Montana Sta 
University, is encouraged by the Service. 

Management and interpretation of important fishery resources 
the parks continued, including the providing of accurate informatic 
on native fishes, and the establishment of self-guiding underwat< 
trails in seashore environments. 

Park Publications 

The phenomenal increase in family camping, recreational pursuit 
and education interests in the National Parks and other areas wj 
demonstrated by the mounting demands for informational and educi 
tional literature. 

The Service produced 11,650,000 copies of free informational publ 
cations during the fiscal year, including new format folders for Crate 
Lake and Glacier National Parks and nine smaller areas. 

Two new historical handbooks — Antietam and Vanderbilt Mai 
sion — were added to the series, and one — The Lincoln Museum an 
The House Where Lincoln Died — was revised. One natural histor 
handbook — Great Smoky Mountains — was added to that series, an 
two in the archeological research series — Archeological Excavatior 
at Jamestown and The Hubbard Site and Other Tri-Wall Structure 
in New Mexico and Colorado — were issued. The Service also pre 
duced the report entitled Recreation Today and Tomorrow in th 
Missouri River Basin, in cooperation with the Missouri Basin Intel 
Agency Committee. 

The Public Inquiries Unit received 54,984 requests for informatio 
during the 1960 fiscal year, which total included 1,235 foreign request! 
and 1,182 congressional requests. 

A total of 295,715 informational publications was received durin 
the year and bulk distribution used in answer to requests receive 
totaled 213,040, exclusive of sales publications and other miscellaneou 
publications — such as concessioner publications. 

During the year, the National Park Service increased its collectio 
of photographs to better illustrate Service publications and for im 
proved park representation in newspapers, magazines, encyclopedias 
and textbooks. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 285 

A survey of the demands on the National Park Service from writers, 
ark administrators, governments as well as private institutions in 
her countries, showed approximately 600 foreign inquiries in a 
[>zen foreign languages received for information and technical 
sistance. 

Cooperation with the Standard Oil Co. of California and the Sin- 
air Oil Corp., in their respective programs of educational radio 
rograms and instructive magazine advertisements, culminated in 
)th firms receiving the Department's Conservation Service Award 
>r enlightened public-service programs in the field of conservation, 
ublic attention was also given to the 40th anniversary of the nature 
uide service in the National Park System, begun in 1920 by Dr. and 
rs. Charles M. Goethe. Dr. Goethe was also the recipient this year 
f the Department's Conservation Service Award. 

listorical Commissions 

The Civil War Centennial Commission continued its activity in 
reparation for observance of the centennial years. Meetings were 
eld in Washington and in St. Louis. 

The Lincoln Sesquicentennial Commission was continued from 
larch 1 to June 30, 1960, to enable the Commission to complete its 
nal report to Congress. 

The Hudson- Champlain Celebration Commission observed the 350th 
nniversary of the explorations of Henry Hudson and Samuel de 
Jhamplain. 

The Boston National Historic Sites Commission, created in 1955 
» study historic objects, sites and buildings in Boston and vicinity 
elating to the Colonial and Revolutionary periods, extended its 2- 
r ear study to June 30, 1960, at which time the final report of the 
Commission was submitted and the Commission disbanded. 

The New York City National Shrines Advisory Board, established 
o promote public cooperation in the rehabilitation, preservation, and 
levelopment of Federal Hall National Memorial, Castle Clinton and 
Statue of Liberty National Monuments in New York City, added new 
nembers to the body in the spring of 1960 — which undertook a re- 
ived program to secure donated funds to complete the development 
>f the areas by the opening date of the World's Fair in New York in 
964. 

The protection and management of back country has become more 
ritical with the growing interest in the primitive and undeveloped 
-reas of the parks. Studies are under way to determine the patterns 
»f use and provide guides for the future. 




A huge rockslide caused by earthquakes in August, 1959, resulted in several million 
dollars worth of damage to Yellowstone National Park, in Wyoming. Although 
there were 1 7,000 people in the park at the time, no one was injured. 



The training of park rangers, foresters and supporting personnel, 
was extended to men in all areas in a variety of programs and subjects 
tailored to fit the many situations encountered in the Service. Em- 
phasis was placed on safety, forest and structural fire control, radio- 
logical monitoring, search and rescue, law enforcement, and mountain- 
eering. The first water safety and rescue seminar was conducted at 
Everglades National Park for 16 park rangers and 6 other Federal 
employees. The National Park Service Training Center at Yo- 
semite National Park completed its third successful year, graduating 
50 new employees. 

During 1959 the Service's system for generating and reporting 
statistics on public use of the parks was overhauled. Statistical 
methods are more rigorously controlled than heretofore. The new 
system is designed to become a basic vehicle in developing data for 
management and planning relating to park workloads, development 
priorities, design loads, changes in public pressures and needs, and 
identification of opportunities for new public services. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 287 

Ranger Activities 

The divisions in four regional offices have been staffed with division 
efs and good progress was made in improving assistance to the 
rks in the fields of preservation and protection. 
k major revision of title 36, Code of Federal Regulations, chapter 
was completed and a new edition of the Code was issued. This 
dates and modernizes the regulations in view of the changes in 
itor use practices in recent years. 

ountaineering 

he mountainous parks are consistently attracting about 20,000 
'sons annually toward the rugged summits. It is a recreational 
let with heavy returns in satisfaction, but inherent hazards are 
rays present and 10 lives were claimed this year by those seeking 
; the high and trackless places. The relatively infrequent accidents 
i mostly of a dramatic nature and thus become widely known. The 
art, time and cost that goes into search, rescue or evacuation is 
^portionately great. 

\e of Water Areas 

rhe vigorous upward trend in all boating and water activities opens 
w areas of use and demands for protection services and facilities 
an increasingly greater level. This is creating a lag that must be 
srcome to meet obligations for visitor safety, enjoyment and preser- 
tion of park features. 

velve Months of Service 

[n 1941, 40 percent of that year's 21 million park visits occurred in 
ly and August. In 1959, 21 million visits occurred in these 2 
►nths alone, but constituted only 34 percent of the year's total of 
million. 

rhis means that parks now receive during nonpeak travel months 
>r three times the volume of travel that formerly occurred during 
i peak period. The visitor pattern has shifted so the provision of 
3lic services now approaches a year-long operation versus a seasonal 



rest Fire Control 

rhe fire control workload increased substantially this year. The 
> seasons, particularly in the western mountain parks, extended 




The Hurricane Ridge Lodge in Olympic National Park, Wash., is a vantage poin 
giving a sweeping view of the forested Olympic Mountains. 

2 to 3 months beyond normal. The occurrence of 517 fires was i 
significant increase over the previous 5-year average of 368. 

Man-caused fires increased 42 percent over the previous year, an< 
lightning-caused fires, 9 percent. However, the 3,061 acres of par] 
vegetation burned was far less than the previous 5 -year average o 
8,444 acres and the lowest since 1939. The safety record of no dis 
abling injuries during firefighting activities is outstanding. 

Greater use was made of aircraft for scouting, detection, movemen 
of suppression personnel and supplies, and application of fire re 
tardants on burning fuels. Smoke Jumpers were utilized for th 
first time in region four. 

Forest Insect and Tree Disease Control 

Maintenance control operations kept most insect and tree diseases 
and subsequent vegetative losses, low. Barkbeetle infestations ii 
mixed conifers in California increased sharply. Mountain pirn 
beetles have invaded the 60,000 acres of high mountain lodgepole pin< 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 289 




/ the dedication of the Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, Department of 
he Interior Secretary Fred A. Seaton is shown points of interest by Superintendent 
Aillard D. Guy. 



n Yosemite National Park which have been weakened by repeated 
stacks of needleminer. Both infestations were combated by direct 
iontrol particularly in the public use areas. 

Acti-dione, an antibiotic, has proven effective in destroying white 
)ine blister rust infections on western white pine. Control programs 
n white pine forests are being reoriented since it is now practical to 
ixtend protection to infected western white pines not included in the 
>riginal ribes eradication units. 

Vildlife and Fish Management 

Fish management was oriented to retain natural wild fish popula- 
ions and to stress that fishing is an incidental park experience rather 
han a primary one. Mammoth Cave and Grand Canyon live-trapped 
leer for transplants in Kentucky and the Navajo Indian Reservation. 
^ bear management policy aimed at reducing personal injury to 
dsitors and returning the bears to natural habitats has been initiated. 



Recreation Resource Planning 

The preparation of the National Park System plan, a program de- 
igned for selecting and preserving, while still available, qualified 
mtstanding scenic, scientific and historic areas of the Nation so that 






Campsites, such as this one in Olympic National Park, Wash., are favorite vacation 
spots to increasing number of visitors to the national parks. 

future park needs may be fulfilled, made significant progress during 
the year. 

Fifty-eight areas received field investigation or were otherwise in 
ventoried for possible consideration for national park purposes. Ii 
addition, comprehensive studies were made of several areas to de 
termine their national significance and their feasibility and suitability 
for inclusion in the system. Among these are the Great Salt Lab 
and Promontory Summit in Utah, Fort Davis in Texas, Fort Smith ii 
Arkansas, Fort Larned in Kansas and Bent's Old Fort in Colorado. 

Legislation has been introduced in Congress to establish a For 
Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz. ; Hubbell Trading Post Nationa 
Historic Site, Ariz., and an Arkansas Post National Memorial ii 
Arkansas. The Russell Cave National Monument, Ala., is expected t< 
be established by Presidential proclamation when the lands have beer 
donated. 

Other bills introduced in Congress would authorize comprehensiv< 
field studies of areas considered to be suitable for national park in 
elusion in the Northern Cascades region of Washington and Sawtootl 
Mountain region of Idaho, both of which are now in national forests 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 291 

mndary Adjustments 

Legislation authorized addition of lands at Antietam National Bat- 
rfield Site, Edison Laboratory National Monument, Independence 
itional Historical Park, Montezuma Castle National Monument, 
d Wright Brothers National Memorial ; additions and deletions at 
ngs Mountain National Military Park and Zion National Park; 
jhange and addition of certain donated lands at the Everglades 
itional Park ; and transfer of a small portion of San Juan National 
LStoric Site to the municipality of San Juan as a city park. 
Legislation also authorized boundary revisions and a change in 
me for Fort Laramie National Historic Site and Stones River Na- 
nal Battlefield, while boundaries of Muir Woods, Black Canyon 
the Gunnison, Cabrillo and Colorado National Monuments were 
rised by Presidential proclamation. 

Public land orders reserved administrative sites near Juneau and 
ng Salmon, Alaska, for Katmai, Sitka and Glacier Bay National 
muments. 

rhe McGraw-Edison Co. donated Glenmont, Thomas A. Edison's 
me in West Orange, N.J., for addition to Edison Laboratory Na- 
nal Monument. Mr. Wallace E. Pratt of Carlsbad, N. Mex., donated 
42 acres of lands located in McKittrick Canyon, Tex., for a 
;ached area addition to Carlsbad Canyon National Park. The 
neral Services Administration approved transfer of about 3,600 
•es of land from the Atomic Energy Commission for addition to 
ndelier National Monument, as proposed by Presidential procla- 
tion. 

Bills introduced in Congress during the past fiscal year would 
ihorize boundary adjustments at Castillo de San Marcos, Dinosaur, 
irpers Ferry, and Scotts Bluff National Monuments ; Coronado Na- 
tial Memorial; Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways, and 
pmpic and Shenandoah National Parks. 

3ther bills would establish a portion of the Tucson Mountain Park 
a detached unit of Saguaro National Monument; authorize a 
indary revision of the Fort Necessity National Battlefield Site; 
ilitate certain land exchanges and adjustments pertinent to park 
ninistration at Vicksburg National Military Park; provide a new 
idquarters site for Mount Rainier National Park about 9 miles from 
5 park, and a small addition to De Soto National Memorial. 

*,w Areas Proposed 

Flie Department recommended that the Congress authorize estab- 
iment of three national seashores to be located at Cape Cod, Mass., 
dre Island, Tex., and Oregon Dunes, Oreg. Studies have continued 



292 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERII 




Carlsbad Caverns National Park, N. Mex., draws an ever-increasing number 
visitors who enjoy its subterranean spectacle as well as the lectures by national p 
rangers. 

for the proposed Point Reyes National Seashore in California a 
Cumberland Island, Ga. 

A Park Service report recommending the establishment of an Ozi 
Rivers National Monument in Missouri was issued during the ye 
A Great Basin National Park proposal in Nevada was considered 
congressional hearings held in Nevada in December 1959. Progr 
was made in evaluating a Prairie National Park proposal in Kan 
and the Allagash River region in Maine. The Department suppor 
the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park propo 
in Maryland. 



Areas Authorized or Established 

In accordance with authorizing legislation, notice of the establi 
ment of Grand Portage National Monument, Minn., effective Janu; 
27, 1960, was given by the Secretary. The Grand Portage Band 
Chippewa Indians and the Minnesota Chippewa tribe previously 
donated their trust lands within the monument boundaries to 
United States for the purposes of the monument. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 293 

Important sites along the route traversed by the British military 
pedition from Boston to Concord, Mass., at the opening of the War 
the American Revolution, were authorized to be established and 
•eserved as the Minute Man National Historical Park by the act of 
sptember 21, 1959. 

The Wilson Creek Battlefield near Springfield, Mo., site of a 
niggle between the Confederate and Union forces for control of 
e State in the first year of the Civil War, was authorized to be 
;ablished as a national park by act of April 22, 1960. Establish- 
snt of Bent's Old Fort in Colorado as a national historic site was 
thorized by act of June 3, 1960. 

Park status for these areas becomes effective when sufficient lands 
ve been acquired to warrant establishment. 

The act of September 8, 1959 changed the designation of the 
>raham Lincoln National Historical Park in Kentucky to the 
>raham Lincoln Birthplace National Historic Site. 
Horseshoe Bend National Military Park was established by Presi- 
ntial proclamation on August 14, 1959, pursuant to an act of 
ngress of July 25, 1956. Lands were donated by the State of Ala- 
ma and the Alabama Power Co. 

ttionwide Recreation Planning 

[nventory of potential recreation areas and studies leading toward 
5 determination of outdoor recreation needs received major emphasis 
the continuing work on nationwide planning for nonurban recrea- 
n resources. 

[n addition, efforts were made toward completion of the inventory 
existing recreation areas and supplementing inventory data pre- 
•usly collected. Data collected on existing areas were assembled for 
) Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission, as was a 
leral evaluation of recreation opportunities and developments in 
3cted metropolitan areas and counties throughout the country. 

oreline Surveys 

Findings from the 2-year recreation area survey of the Great Lakes 
>reline were released in a two- volume report issued by the National 
rk Service, Our Fourth Shore and Remaining Shoreline Opportuni- 
3. The report recommends public preservation of important nat- 
il areas and responsible planning for industrial areas to reduce 
ir effect on recreation values. 

5ixty-six areas were identified as possessing important recreation 
ues. At least three of these, Sleeping Bear Dunes, Huron Moun- 



294 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTER! 

tains, and Pictured Rocks, were believed to be of national significar 
and were being studied in further detail at the end of the year. 

River Basin and Regional Studies 

A report on Recreation Today and Tomorrow in the Missouri Rii 
Basin, prepared in cooperation with the Missouri Basin Inter- Ager 
Committee, was released. Cooperation with recreation groups 
interagency committees included participation in work of the 
kansas- White-Red Basins Inter-Agency Committee, the Colum 
Basin Inter- Agency Committee, the Pacific Southwest Inter- Ager 
Committee especially on the means of financing recreation deveh 
ment under the provisions of the Colorado River Storage Project A 
and the U.S. Study Commission, Southeast River Basins on a fi< 
survey to identify "unusual areas" possessing recreation potential a 
deserving consideration for meeting present and future recreati 
demands. 

At the request of the Bureau of Land Management, the Serv 
undertook to provide recreation planning assistance on O & C lar 
in Oregon. 

Recreation Research 

The field of recreation economics was stressed in research stud 
made during the year, especially in connection with proposed natioi 
seashore areas. Economic surveys of the proposed national seasho 
at Oregon Dunes and Point Reyes were completed in collaborati 
with private economic experts, and an economic study on the imp 
of establishment of the proposed Cape Cod seashore was condud 
under contract. Survey work was completed also on a study of 1 
economic impact and sociological effects of recreation use of th 
reservoirs in the Missouri River basin. 

Reports are in process on two special studies being made un< 
contract : (1) a study of present and future needs for organized can 
ing facilities to provide camping opportunities for children in aj 
9-16, and (2) a nationwide sample survey to help measure long-te 
demand for public parks and recreation areas and the types of outdc 
experiences that are sought. 

A special survey of the demand for water resources for recreat 
use was made at the request of the Senate Select Committee on I 
tional Water Resources. 

Advisory and Consultative Assistance 

Assistance was given to 47 States on 628 occasions on a wide vari 
of problems. The amount of such assistance furnished has been 



.* 




ort Laramie in Wyoming, like many other National Monuments, recalls America's 
arly frontier history and the opening of the West. 



reasing gradually for some years, but it is still inadequate to meet 
he requests arising from the States' expanding recreational programs. 

One of the more significant examples was cooperation with the 
Missouri State Park Board in adapting Service master-planning pro- 
edures to the preparation of a master plan for Van Meter State Park. 
Ifter approval by the Board, it is hoped that this may serve as a 
^uide for other master plans. 

Another important example is a comprehensive study of the 50,000- 
>cre Custer State Park being undertaken on a reimbursable basis at 
he request of the South Dakota Department of Game, Fish and 
> arks to determine needed acquisition, development, protection and 
>perating methods and procedures required for continued administra- 
ion as a State park on an adequate and proper basis. 

This annual edition of a compilation of reports by State park 
gencies made upon request of the National Conference on State 
^arks, reveals (1) 2,433 State parks, historic sites, and related types 
f recreation areas, embracing nearly 5.7 million acres, (2) attendance 
i excess of 255 million, including 18 million overnight guests, (3) ex- 
enditures of $51 million for operation and maintenance and $37 mil- 
on for capital improvements, (4) revenue from operations amounting 
) nearly $21 million, and (5) 6,966 year-round and 9,724 seasonal 
ersonnel. 



296 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIC 




Keeping picnic grounds in the national parks neat and tidy is an unending t 
for park personnel which has to cope with man and beast. 



Real Property Disposal 

Recommendations were furnished to General Services Administ 
tion for conveying to the States and their political subdivisions 
park, recreation and historic monument purposes, 28 Federal surp 
properties embracing 2,066 acres. 

Most significant was the former Sampson Air Force Base n 
Geneva, N.Y., with 3 miles of frontage on Seneca Lake, the largest 
the Finger Lakes. The Service now has responsibility for enforc 
compliance with the conditions of the deeds on 189 properties wit 
total of 31,872 acres. 

The Bureau of Land Management was furnished recommendati 
on 40 applications from State and local agencies to acquire pul 
domain lands for park and recreation purposes. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 297 

eservoir Planning and Management 

Nineteen recreation reports were prepared for the Department's 
iireau of Reclamation and also 19 for the U.S. Army Corps of 
Qgineers. A management agreement was negotiated with the Colo- 
do State Park and Recreation Board for the operation and mainte- 
mce of the recreation area on the Bureau's Yega Reservoir. 



Operations 

Recommendations made by the management survey teams during 
e year should strengthen the Branches of Programs and Mainte- 
,nce. The former has been given expanded functions relating to 
aerating programs and the latter will be enabled to carry forward 
more dynamic maintenance program for the parks. 
The Branches of Concessions and Lands have achieved substantial 
suits, respectively, in their fields of providing more and improved 
sitor accommodations and eliminating inholdings, despite serious 
istacles which have had to be overcome. 

Probably the most difficult problem ahead in the land acquisition 
ild is the acquiring of inholdings at Antietam National Battlefield 
te, Gettysburg National Military Park, and other Civil War battle- 
Id areas, before the forthcoming centennial observances. 

tnd Acquisition 

During the fiscal year $1,700,000 was appropriated for land acquisi- 
>n, of which $450,000 was allotted to the purchase of lands in Civil 
ar areas. Some 20,685 acres of inholdings were acquired by pur- 
ase, donation, transfer, or exchange. 

Donations of land included 640 acres from the State of Texas for 
g Bend National Park ; 1,322.75 acres and 37.50 acres from the State 

North Carolina and the Eastern National Park and Monument 
ssociation, respectively, for addition to the Blue Ridge Parkway; 
id 1,284 acres from the State of Tennessee for the Foothills Parkway, 
reat Smoky Mountains National Park. 
Completed purchases and approved options cover some 5,385 acres 

land in Glacier, Isle Royale, Rocky Mountain, and Yosemite Na- 
mal Parks ; Fort Frederica, Joshua Tree, Petrified Forest, and Pin- 
teles National Monuments; Colonial and Independence National 
istorical Parks; Manassas National Battlefield Park; Theodore 
oosevelt National Memorial Park; and Fort Clatsop National Me- 
orial Project. 




The unsurpassed grandeur of the snow-covered Logan Pass on the "Going to ti 
Sun Highway" in Glacier National Park leaves unforgettable memories to millio 
of visitors. 



Water Resources and Water Rights 

The special master's report on the Arizona vs. California suit ov 
Lower Colorado River water rights was submitted to the Supren 
Court in May. The special master limited allocation to the wate 
of the main stem of the river. The right to the quantity of wat 
from the main stem, which is being used at Lake Mead Nation 
Recreation Area, and the right to unspecified increased future use, 
needed, were recognized. 

Federal rights to the use of waters tributary to the Colorado Riv 
remain unaffected at Lake Mead and the other 22 parks and mon 
ments in the Lower Colorado River basin. These rights were reco 
nized as being based both on appropriation under State laws ai 
on Federal withdrawal and reservation of the areas. 

Concessions Authorizations 

Six concession contracts were negotiated. Five of these includ 
construction programs — three at Lake Mead and one each at Ca 
Hatteras and Yosemite. Of the six contracts negotiated, three ha 
been finally executed on behalf of the Government. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 299 

The review of concession contract language and policies within the 
apartment has caused this activity to be temporarily suspended. 

ospectuses 

Seven prospectuses were issued solicting offers for facilities at Big 
md, Glacier, Isle Royale, Natchez Trace, Blue Ridge, Glacier Bay, 
d Fort Jefferson. The Big Bend, Isle Royale, and Blue Ridge pros- 
ctuses resulted from the decision that no action be taken on the 
mest of National Park Concessions, Inc., for a new contract and 
3 directive that prospectuses be issued for each area in which it 
erates. 

The only offer received in response to the Big Bend prospectus was 
Dmitted by National Park Concessions, Inc., and was conditioned 
on its being authorized to continue operations at Mammoth Cave, 
contract is being negotiated as a result of the Natchez Trace 
ospectus. 

ission 66 Control Schedules 

rhe Mission 66 Control Schedules for the parks were revised to 
•lude requirements for new areas and increased costs. Also, sched- 
>s for operating programs were included for the first time, 
[n preparing this 200-page document, the original Mission 66 esti- 
ites for operating programs were reviewed in cooperation with repre- 
ltatives of the Mission 66 Staff and the Branch of Finance. New 
imates were developed, taking into account factors not known when 
i original estimates were prepared in 1955. 

In addition to revised control schedules, a 150- page, 6-year pro- 
am of public works projects was prepared in compliance with Bureau 
the Budget requirements, and a tabulation showing estimated costs 
Federal, State, and nonurban recreational developments for the 
-fiscal-year period, 1961-1975. 

berating Programs 

As a result of recommendations of the management survey teams, 
3 Branch of Programs has been assigned final responsibility for all 
erating programs, and for developing procedures leading to the 
eparation and submission annually of formalized programs for all 
rvice functions. 

Procedures are in the process of prepartion and it is expected that 
By will be put into effect during the 1961 fiscal year. 

569553 0—61 20 



300 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERI 

Maintenance 

Attention has been focused on park needs where water-borne tra 
portation units and floating equipment are essential to efficient rna 
tenance and operation. Arrangements have been made with 
Chief of Transportation, Department of the Army, to secure a 1 
and barges for Isle Royal e National Park and a supply ship for F 
Jefferson National Monument. 

The Commandant, U.S. Coast Guard, has cooperated in furnish: 
technical assistance in converting several gasoline-powered craft 
Lake Mead to diesel power for more efficient operation and grea 
safety. 

Design and Construction 

In fiscal 1960, 1,252 projects were included in construction progrs 
of the National Park Service, including carryover projects fr 
previous fiscal years. By June 30, 1,097 of these projects were cc 
pleted or under construction. 

Severe damage to facilities in Yellowstone National Park due 
the recent earthquake, and damage incurred by volcanic activity 
Hawaii National Park, required immediate remedial measures to p 
vide facilities for public safety and protection of Government pr 
erty requiring temporary postponement of some construction projt 
originally contemplated. 

Roads and Trails 

Eighteen major roads projects were completed, amounting to 
miles of stage reconstruction or completion at a cost of $9,883,£ 
Twenty-one projects totaling $9,181,413 were started during the ye 
one for $41,994 has been completed ; the 20 remaining totaling $9,1! 
920 added to six previously started projects costing $4,801,299 ma 
a total of 26 projects costing $13,930,219 under construction at the e 
of the year. 

Important projects consisting of reconstruction completed dur 
the year were 20 miles of the Tioga Road at Yosemite National Pa 
5 miles of the Rio Grande Road at Big Bend National Park, 14 m: 
of the park road at Mount McKinley National Park, 7 miles of 
Peaceful Valley Loop Road at Theodore Roosevelt National Memoi 
Park, and 14 miles of the Cedar Pass Pinnacles Road at Badla 
National Monument, and 5 miles of the Park Entrance Road at M 
Verde National Park. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 301 

arkways 

The National Parkways construction program concentrated on 
veral parkways and provided additional visitor facilities along the 
mpleted sections. Of the $16 million contract authorization pro- 
ded by the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1958, $240,000 was pro- 
*amed for the Baltimore-Washington Parkway — Maryland ; $4,413,- 
K) for the Blue Eidge Parkway — Virginia and North Carolina; 
10,000 for the Colonial Parkway— Virginia ; $1,661,000 for Foot- 
11s Parkway — Tennessee; $2,809,800 for the George Washington 
Memorial Parkway — Virginia and Maryland; $6,365,000 for the 
atchez Trace Parkway — Alabama, Tennessee, Mississippi ; $165,000 
>r the Palisades Parkway — District of Columbia; $35,500 for 
Le Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway — District of Columbia, 
id $200,000 for advance planning. 

An amount of $2 million additional contract authority was provided 
I the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1959 for relocation of a portion 
5 the Natchez Trace Parkway to be flooded by creation of the pro- 
ved Pearl River Valley reservoir near Jackson, Miss. 
During the year 32 individual major projects were completed with 
total value of $16 million. The completion of the 18-mile section of 
le Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia extending from U.S. No. 60 
>uthwesterly to the existing Peaks of Otter section including the 
040-foot long James River bridge, was a major accomplishment, 
he opening of this section eliminated a 25-mile detour and provided 
otorists with a 211-mile scenic drive from the northern boundary of 
henandoah National Park to U.S. Highway No. 460 near Roanoke. 

5-mile extension of the George Washington Memorial Parkway in 
irginia from Spout Run near Key Bridge to the Central Intelligence 
gency Headquarters site was opened. On the Natchez Trace Park- 
ay in Mississippi 35 miles were completed on the Jackson-Tupelo 
lit. Numerous picnic ground facilities, campground roads, comfort 
ations, maintenance buildings and utility systems were completed. 
Forty-five major contracts totaling $23,715,000 were in process under 
Le Bureau of Public Roads program. They include two projects on 
le. 5,036-foot long Tennessee River bridge in Alabama to carry the 
atchez Trace Parkway over the Pickwick reservoir, and the begin- 
ing of grading work on the Foothills Parkway in Tennessee. 
Field studies were provided jointly by the Bureau of Public Roads 
id the National Park Service on the location of the Great River 
oad in Arkansas. All 10 Mississippi River States were provided 
ith similar advisory service. 



302 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERI 

Buildings 

Emphasis on visitors' facilities continued. The building constn 
tion program included 18 visitor centers completed or nearing co 
pletion, with 7 additional ones under construction or reaching 1 
contract stage. Eighty-four projects involving over 100 histo 
buildings or structural remains were in progress. 

There were 87 permanent dwelling units; 55 multiple units: 
seasonal buildings and a dormitory under construction. Duri 
hearings on the 1961 fiscal year budget, the Service's Revised Star 
ard Plans for Employee Housing were reviewed by a House Si 
committee on Appropriations. The fund limitation of $20,000 
in 1960 was retained, but a basis was established for clearance 
projects expected to exceed that amount. 

Programing of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial ^ 
geared to commemorate in 1964 the sesquicentennial of the foundi 
of St. Louis. Revisions in planning and construction since 1£ 
necessitated several additions and adjustments in the professioi 
services contracts. The architects are currently completing stud 
of the design, structural and mechanical phases of the memor 
arch features. 

The Historic American Buildings Survey continued recordi 
historic structures with the aid of summer- student teams and throu 
widening collaboration with professional and historical organizatio 
universities and preservation groups. In the Virgin Islands a gn 
by the Jackson Hole Preserve brought to realization the longstai 
ing plans of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen 
undertake a survev of early Danish architecture, under the spons 
ship of HABS. 

Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures 

Major emphasis was given to simplification of design and accele 
tion of construction of campground and related utilities. Particu 
attention was given to effecting economies consistent with good pi 
tice and National Park Service policy, with respect to number a 
location of necessary water fountains, lighting, comfort stations, a 
hydrants necessary for fire protection. 

Following a study made for the National Park Service bj 
specialist on beach erosion, action was initiated in cooperation w 
the State of North Carolina to provide sand fixation and hurries 
protection at Cape Hatteras National Seashore. The objective 
to develop an effective barrier against the forces of nature wh 
erode the beach. The design of the Cruz Bay marina to serve 
Virgin Islands National Park was completed. Fifty-eight new s< 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 303 

systems were completed and 66 new water systems increased 
^ter storage facilities by 2,219,275 gallons. Eighteen new camp- 
[)unds were completed as well as 978 additional campsites. 

ister Plans 

En the new format which was developed in a Mission 66 study the 
,ster plan for each park is expected to become an increasingly im- 
rtant and useful document. 

The individual plans will define the overall objectives and controls 
d establish basic requirements for all elements of a park program. 
L e correlation of development to the requirements of administration, 
Dtection, interpretation, and public accommodations will be greatly 
engthened. Similarly, the conduct of other programs will have 
ir basis in a single document thereby assuring unified direction in 
jomplishing stated objectives. 



National Capital Parks 

An estimated 45 million persons used National Capital Parks park 
cilities in fiscal 1960, with more than 5 million visitors counted at 
3 five major national memorials. There were 367 special events 
tended by over 2% million persons, representing a 73 percent in- 
ase in special events over 1958 and a 30 percent increase over 1959. 



ission 66 Improvements 

A 5 -mile section of the George Washington Memorial Parkway 
>ng the Virginia Palisades was opened by President Eisenhower 

November 3; the Old Stone House in Georgetown was furnished 
d placed in operation as a historic house museum on January 24; 
b House Where Lincoln Died underwent major rehabilitation and 
is reopened to the public by the Secretary of the Interior on July 4 ; 
b Netherlands Carillon Tower was accepted on behalf of the people 

the United States by the Secretary of the Interior on May 5 ; the 
)ck Creek Nature Center was dedicated on June 4 ; and a new staff 
arters at camp 5 and paving circulatory roads were completed 
Prince William Forest Park. 

A new recreation building at camp 2 was constructed at Catoctin 
ountain Park; major road improvement was undertaken in Rock 
:eek Park and extensions of parking areas completed at the Carter 
irron Amphitheater and Mount Vernon; extensive planting and 
tproved landscaping was accomplished throughout the park system, 
eluding the addition of 4,687 trees and 7,827 shrubs. Major land- 
a,pe improvements were made to 14 separate park areas. 



304 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERU 

Planning and Land Acquisition 

A contract was awarded for the design of a six-lane Lincoln IV 
morial underpass and redevelopment of the Lincoln Memorial Pla: 
A lease agreement was negotiated between the Potomac Elect 
Power Co. and National Capital Parks for 790 acres of wilderne 
type land at Great Falls, Va., for a period of 50 years. Such agr 
ment will insure protection for this rugged natural area and may p: 
vide for its eventual inclusion as a key unit in the National Capi 
Park System. 

Budget and Finance 

While the Service's 1960 appropriations for construction of bur 
lii^s, utilities and other facilities were less than the amount app 
priated for 1959, appropriation increases were provided in 1960 
strengthen the operating programs. There follows a comparison 
the 1960 appropriations with those for 1959 : 



Appropriation item 


1959 fiscal 
year 


1960 fiscal 
year 


Increase 
or decre 
(-) 


Management and protection .. 


$16,056,200 

12, 477, 100 

1, 429, 300 

20,000,000 

30, 000, 000 


$16, 772, 000 

14, 435, 000 

1, 475. 000 

16, 735, 000 

30,000,000 


+$71t 

+1, 957 

+4.' 

-3, 26{ 


Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities 


General administrative expenses . ... .. .. 


Construction _ . 


Construction (liquidation of contract authorization) 






Total cash appropriations 


79, 962, 600 


79,417,000 


-54* 




Construction (amount by which roads and trails and parkways 
contract authorization exceeds cash appropriation) ._ 


2, 000, 000 


6,000,000 


+4,00( 




Total new obligational authority 


i 81, 962, 600 


85, 417, 000 


+3, 45< 





1 Includes $14,765,500 of 1959 contract authorization for roads and trails and parkways construction 
vanced to the 1958 fiscal year for obligation. 

Financial Management 

At the close of the fiscal year, the Service's program for i 
provement in financial management, which has been in progress sii 
1954, was nearing completion. One important feature of the progr 
virtually completed during the year was that of inventorying a 
placing under accounting control all of the fixed assets in the pj 
areas that were acquired or constructed prior to the installation 
the new accounting system. 

For the first time in its history the Service now has complete inv 
tories of all its fixed assets and under the new accounting system si 
inventories will be kept current at all times. Steady progress 
made in the review and revision of the draft accounting handbc 
which should be ready for General Accounting Office considerat 
and approval within a few months. 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1961 — 598336 



•JITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary 




Annual 
Report 



1961 






NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Conrad L. Wirth, Director 



Annual Report 

of the Commissioner 

NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 

to the 
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



Reprinted from the 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE 
SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

For the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1961 



National Park Service 

Conrad L. Wirth, Director 




A New Administration, the half-way point in the Mission 66 pro- 
gram, and inception of the Parks for America movement marked fiscal 
1961 for the Department of the Interior's National Park Service 

Vigorous words backed by immediate commitments to action 
launched President Kennedy's approach to America's Recreation 
Frontier. In his Special Message to Congress on Natural Resources, 
the President charted a dramatic course to preserve the Nation's 
rapidly disappearing recreation lands. 

He stressed the importance of the National Park System — its con- 
tribution to "America's health, morale, and culture ..." He urged 
immediate congressional action ". . . leading to the establishment of 
seashore and shoreline areas such as Cape Cod, Padre Island and 
Point Reyes." And he instructed the Secretary of the Interior, in 
cooperation with other conservation groups — public and private — to 
"formulate a comprehensive Federal recreational lands program." 

The sense of urgency conveyed in the President's message has been 
relayed by Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall to every level 
of the National Park Service. In an address on March 6, 1961, Secre- 
tary Udall stated : "The talk today is of overurbanization, exploding 
population, and vanishing countryside. . . . We are today in a state 
of long-term crisis. . . . The overriding mandate to conservation- 
ists today is to preserve the natural habitat of man — to preserve it 
against the onslaught of bulldozers, cement mixers and subdividers." 

It is in this context of crisis that we must assess the accomplish- 
ments of the National Park Service during the year, that we must 
evaluate the Mission 66 program — with 5 years gone and 5 to go — 
that we must take our sights on a future that will challenge our best 
energies. 

357 






358 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Accomplishments 

What then, have been the accomplishments this year ? Details are 
related in following sections of this report, but the selected summary 
below is useful for overall perspective. During fiscal year 1961, the 
National Park Service : 

Provided recreation opportunities for nearly 76 million visitors 
and at the same time preserved the wilderness and natural values of 
the parks. This is the most important single accomplishment of the 
Service and the System ; it is the final measure of all other activities. 

Activated five new areas, among them Haleakala in Hawaii: 
America's 30th National Park. 

Opened 10 new Park visitor centers to the public. 

Continued studies of potential local, State, and Federal recreation 
areas throughout the country. 

Initiated public tours of Glenmont, the Thomas A. Edison home. 

Tightened motorboat regulations in wilderness areas. 

Inaugurated important wildlife management programs and studies. 

Embarked on a concentrated land-acquisition program for Civil 
War areas, in line with the Nationwide Centennial Observance. 

Improved boundaries of many parks and eliminated key private 
inholdings, notably at Mammoth Cave National Park. 

Launched the Registered Historical Landmark Program. 

Accelerated construction programs to provide relief for eco- 
nomically depressed areas. 

Strengthened maintenance functions to assure better preservation 
and use of park resources. 

Encouraged substantial new investments by concessioners to provide 
better visitor facilities. 

Expended or obligated $92 million for 1,147 construction projects, 
including new and improved campsites and new visitor centers. 

Completed and opened for public use 438 facilities representing an 
investment of $21 million. 

Improved management, protection, and interpretation at parks by 
adding 1,222 new permanent employees. 

Improved the caliber of present employees through training pro- 
grams, such as those conducted at the Service's Training Center in 
Yosemite National Park. 

Underpinning the Service's aspirations for the future was a com- 
prehensive legislative program. Given the need for quick action to 
save significant open lands, the most important elements of this pro- 
gram were legislative recommendations to create new park, recreation, 
and shoreline areas. Cape Cod, Padre Island, and Point Reyes Na- 
tional Seashores were among those recommended. Other pending 









fi^H^ <2&d.* 



■4P*tt 



Canoeing on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal is a favorite outdoor sport shared by 
hikers who frequent the towpath throughout the year. The influx of vacationers 
who like the great outdoors requires determined efforts by the Park Service to find 
more recreation areas in the National Park System. 



bills would authorize, among others, Great Basin and Prairie National 
Parks and Ozark Rivers National Monument. 



Mission 66 Reappraisal 

Mission 66 is a 10-year conservation program for the National Park 
System. Its whole purpose is to make possible the best and wisest 
use of America's scenic and historic heritage. That means maximum 
enjoyment with maximum protection of those features and those 
qualities which make it a national park system unmatched in the 
world. The purpose has not changed, but the magnitude of the task 
has. That is why substantial time and energy has been devoted this 
year to reappraising Mission 66. 

Five years ago, conditioned by the "patch-on-patch" psychology 
of the war years, park plans seemed overbold. But the vitality, the 
mobility, and the prosperity of this Nation have proved that they 
were not bold enough. 



360 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

In the 5 years just past, hundreds of construction projects have 
been completed, a unique system of interpretive centers for park visi- 
tors has mushroomed across the land, camping facilities have been 
improved, roads have been repaved and relocated. 

But instead of the urgency being over, we find ourselves facing a 
new dimension where an action program is required which dwarfs the 
first 5 years of Mission 66. 

As President Kennedy commented, cooperation between conserva- 
tion agencies and groups must be strengthened at every level. Con- 
servation and wholesome recreation are the elements of one national 
problem ; the National Parks are not islands unto themselves. 

Visitor facilities and existing parks are not enough now, much less 
for coming generations. By the year 2000 there will be more than 
360 million Americans. 

Public response to Mission 66, on the whole, has been overwhelm- 
ingly favorable. The American people wanted and got improved 
facilities in their parks. They appreciated this turn for the better. 
But there has been concern and criticism, too. 

Is Mission 66 overdeveloping the parks? Are the essential values 
of the System being compromised in the attempt to provide for the 
onslaught of visitors? These voices have been listened to. Where 
they have been uninformed, every effort has been made to allay fears 
with facts. Where the voices have offered solid criticism and have 
pointed out mistakes, programs have been modified to prevent jeop- 
ardy of lasting values in the parks. 

The National Park Service is charged with a single, but twofold 
purpose : To provide for public enjoyment of the parks in a manner 
that leaves them unimpaired for future generations. Preservation is 
combined with use, not alienated from it. The purpose of Mission 66, 
in its inception and yet today, has been to contain and channel the 
inundation of people before sheer volume destroyed the basic values 
of the System. The wilderness character of the System has not been 
sacrificed to Mission 66, but saved by it. 

Observations indicate that the principal activities of park visitors 
are camping, hiking to outlying points of interest on park trails, 
nature walks with naturalists, and attending campfire programs and 
lectures. The vast majority of those who travel to the parks have a 
good appreciation of what the parks are for and how they should 
be used. 



Challenge of the Future 

The "quite crisis" of disappearing recreation lands has awakened 
Americans. They are tired of going to crowded, over-regulated parks. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 361 

They want space and they want quite. These are other names for 
freedom. 

Out of the pervasive need for expanded recreation lands a new con- 
servation movement has sprung: Parks for America. It involves 
the cooperative effort of Federal, State, and local park and recreation 
agencies. 

It is an education in the growing interdependence of our society to 
hear men and women from these different governmental levels discuss 
park and recreation problems. The problems are mutual and they 
demand mutual solutions. In this realization and the action program 
it compels lies the challenge and the hope of America's recreation 
future. 

Parks for America ties together the many strands that make up 
America's Kecreation Frontier : Mission 66 and a growing, balanced 
National Park System ; the National Kecreation Plan ; and State and 
local park and recreation systems. 

In concert, the many agencies and governmental levels involved have 
the chance to save significant portions of man's natural habitat for our 
children's children. 



Mission 66 

Outstanding as a milestone of the program was the Mission 66 
Frontiers Conference held in April 1961 in Grand Canyon National 
Park. Here the park superintendents, representing the grass roots of 
park conservation, met with the planners and administrators to take 
stock of progress made during the first half of the program and to 
set the stage for the next 5 years. A sober examination of what had 
been accomplished, an evaluation of successes and failures, and a re- 
dedication to the promise of Mission 66 were the main accomplishments 
of the Conference. 

A reappraisal of the objectives as well as the progress of the program 
was a significant feature of Mission 66 activity during the year. The 
result has strengthened our resolution to bring the program to full 
accomplishment. Gratifying progress is being made, but it must be 
speeded up. Increased emphasis must be given to developing a com- 
prehensive program of research to enhance the knowledge needed for 
all phases of park protection, interpretation and maintenance. Man- 
agement improvement also needs to be pushed forward at a faster 
pace. Staffing schedules must be made to keep pace with the provi- 
sion of physical facilities. 










'■~1 










™ TFT. §L 




PII 


it fHIwW ; j(f 



Preservation and restoration are continued operations of the National Park Service 
at Harpers Perry National Monument as in many other units of the park system. 
The picture shows Shenandoah Street in Harpers Perry, a town of outstanding 
scenic and historic interest. 



Employee training needs to be stepped up all along the line. But 
one of the greatest challenges is the necessary expansion of the Na- 
tional Park System itself. 

As a Nation we must provide for the physical, cultural, and spirit- 
ual well-being of the people. We must protect and preserve the 
natural and historical features that represent the greatness of Amer- 
ica. The National Park System must be expanded if this is to be done 
and the growing population is to be provided the open space it needs 
for refreshment and relaxation. We have learned from the seashore 
studies that delay in acquiring park and recreation lands means lost 
opportunities. Remaining areas of natural, scientific, historic, and 
recreational significance on a national scale must be found and dedi- 
cated to the public welfare before they are lost forever. 

Providing parks and recreational opportunities for people is not 
alone a Federal responsibility. An important part of Mission 66 
planning consists of developing programs in cooperation with State, 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 363 

county, municipal and other local agencies. Parks for America is 
being launched as a cooperative program designed to pull together 
the aims, resources, and skills of all professional park people and 
citizen groups in a unified plan for a stronger and culturally richer 
America. 

Recreation Resource Planning 

Localities, States, the Federal Government together face a crisis 
in saving space now, and together they must act to set aside national 
recreational areas and city playgrounds, State parks and county green 
belts, and pay a high price for land that will soon be even more costly 
or else committed to developments. Time and economics no longer 
will allow piecemeal action. There must be a pooling of funds and 
effort by Federal, State, and local governments if park needs now and 
for the future are to be met. 

Accordingly, the National Conference on State Parks, the American 
Institute of Park Executives and other organizations are cooperating 
with the National Park Service in a concerted program to provide 
adequate Parks for America, an eleventh hour effort to seek authority 
md money to bid successfully in the competitive land market while 
suitable parklands are yet available, and to defend existing parks 
against encroachment. Secretary Udall has given Parks for America 
wholehearted endorsement. 

Nationwide Recreation Planning 

As an integral part of Mission 66, the National Park Service is 
preparing a nationwide plan for parks, parkways, and recreation 
areas to be published in 1962, outlining a program that would provide 
ill segments of our present and future population with adequate 
outdoor recreation areas near their homes for frequent day and week- 
end use, as well as more remote areas for vacation use. In the studies 
leading to the plan, we are working closely with the President's Out- 
loor Recreation Resources Review Commission. 

The report will present a list of specific potential sites as well as 
recommended sites for consideration as parks, parkways, and recrea- 
tion areas in each of the 50 States, of local, State and National sig- 
lificance. Following publication of the report, the Service expects 
:o cooperate with the States in the preparation of individual State 
)lans. 

The inventory of some 5,000 existing local, State and Federal parks 
md recreation areas has been completed and approximately 2,400 



364 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

potential areas have been studied so far. Also preliminary State 
plans have been prepared in cooperation with park and planning 
officials of West Virginia, North Carolina, Ohio, Nevada, and 
Missouri. 



River Basin and Regional Studies 

The Service cooperated with the United States Study Commission, 
Southeast River Basins, in preparing recreation plans for eight river 
basins encompassing parts of Georgia, Alabama, Florida, South Caro- 
lina, and North Carolina. 

In cooperation with the Corps of Engineers, the Service is also 
conducting a recreation study of the Potomac River Basin covering 
parts of Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. In 
these river basin studies recreation is a major planning purpose along 
with water supply, flood control, and pollution abatement. 

The Service cooperated with the Department's Bureau of Land 
Management in the evaluation of the recreational potentialities of 
certain public domain lands to determine their suitability for ad- 
ministration as park or recreation areas by an appropriate level of 
government. 

National Park System Plan 

As a part of Mission 66, work has gone forward on the National 
Park System Plan to round out the National Park System and in- 
sure its future adequacy. Sixty-one areas, totaling more than 3.5 
million acres, have been identified as having National Park possibili- 
ties, and studies of 10 more are under way. 

Of more immediate import, are 11 specific recommendations, many 
of them supported by bills in Congress, to create new National Park 
areas. These include Cape Cod, Oregon Dunes, Point Reyes, anc 
Padre Island National Seashores; Chesapeake and Ohio National 
Historical Park to make adequate the canal property now in National 
Monument status; and National Historic Site designation for Fort 
Bowie and Hubbell Trading Post in Arizona, and Old Fort Davis 
in Texas. 

Also included in the recommended legislation is a bill to authorize 
establishment of Alexander Hamilton's home in New York as a Na- 
tional Monument, and Abraham Lincoln's boyhood home in Indiana 
as a National Memorial. Buck Island Reef, near St. Croix, Virgin 
Islands, one of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean, has been 
recommended for establishment as a National Monument. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 365 

Areas Authorized or Established 

Five new units were added to the National Park System during 
1961. Arkansas Post National Memorial commemorates white settle- 
ment of the lower Mississippi Valley. Russell Cave National Monu- 
ment, donated by the National Geographic Society, protects an arche- 
ological site of 8,000 years of continuous habitation by prehistoric 
Americans. 

Fort Christian, believed to be the oldest standing structure in the 
United States Virgin Islands, was established at St. Thomas National 
Historic Site. In addition, the portion of Hawaii National Park on 
the island of Maui was designated as a separate park — Haleakala — 
and the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal lands were given National Monu- 
ment status. 

Boundary Adjustments 

The boundaries of 10 units of the National Park System were im- 
proved by legislation and presidential proclamation during 1961, and 
action is being considered to make boundary adjustments in 11 other 
areas. 

Encroachments continued to threaten the National Parks during 
1961. Mining claims and prospecting beset Mount McKinley National 
Park, Alaska, Death Valley National Monument, and Grand Canyon 
National Park, Ariz. A proposed interstate highway would bisect 
Ocmulgee National Monument. 

Reservoir Planning and Management 

Twenty-seven recreation reports were prepared for the Depart- 
ment's Bureau of Reclamation and 31 for the Corps of Engineers, 
and agreements were negotiated with State and local agencies for the 
management of recreation lands and facilities at 7 Reclamation reser- 
voirs. Forty-two applications for Federal Power Commission permits 
and licenses were reviewed and recommendations furnished to the 
Office of the Project Review Coordinator. Increasing emphasis has 
been given to review of Reclamation reservoir proposals to assure 
that current reports and pending legislation provide adequately for 
recreation lands and facilities. 

Assistance was given on 629 occasions in 47 States on a wide variety 
of problems including interpretative planning on 24 parks in 10 
States ; additionally, participation from the standpoint of interpreta- 
tion was given in four training meetings. Included also is planning 
assistance to several Indian tribes for developing park and recreation 



**&m 




The ever-increasing number of visitors to the National Parks and Monuments re- 
quires a constant enlarging of and adding to parking, picnic and campgrounds. 



potentials of their lands to accommodate tourists and vacationers, 
thus strengthening the tribal economies. 

Bequests for such assistance from the States is expected to rise 
appreciably in the future because of park expansion programs re- 
sulting from increased appropriations and bond issues such as those 
approved last year in Kentucky, Michigan, and New York, and others 
being considered in California, New Hampshire, New Jersey, anc 
Pennsylvania. 



Real Property Disposal 

Eecommendations were furnished to General Services Adminis- 
tration on 28 applications submitted by the States and their politica 
subdivisions to acquire Federal surplus real properties for public 
park, recreation, and historic monument purposes. Of special sig- 
nificance, are the applications of the State of California to acquire 
as part of the proposed 6,000-acre Golden Gate Headlands State 
Park on both sides of San Francisco Bay, 291 acres of the historic anc 
scenic Forts Baker and Cronkhite in Marin County. The Service 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 367 

now has compliance responsibility on a total of 205 properties 
embracing 34,038 acres. 

Recommendations also were furnished to the Bureau of Land Man- 
agement on 62 similar applications to acquire public domain lands 
for the same purpose. 

The 1960 edition of State Parks — Areas, Acreages and Accommoda- 
tions lists 2,589 State parks, monuments, historic sites, recreation 
areas and other types of areas included in the State park systems 
embracing almost 5y 2 million acres and administered by 99 agencies 
in the 50 States. The tabulations give for each area the name, loca- 
tion by county, acreage, and the availability of water recreation and 
overnight and eating accommodations. 

State Park Statistics, 1960 reports: (1) attendance of 259 million 
including 20 million overnight guests, (2) expenditures of $56 mil- 
lion for operation and maintenance and $31 million for land acquisi- 
tion and improvements, (3) revenue from operations of nearly $23 
million, and (4) 7,412 year-round and 10,125 seasonal personnel. 



Interpretation 

The interpretative program of the National Park Service continued 
to render an educational service to ever-increasing numbers of visitors 
to the parks and monuments, as well as to the country's newspapers, 
magazines, and radio stations. 

The program itself was improved by the opening of new visitor cen- 
ters, which during the year saw a record number of visitors. The 
latest audio- visual techniques are being developed to make more effec- 
tive the presentation of the park story in these visitor centers. The 
interpretative program teaches geology, natural history, history, and 
archeology to the visitors of the parks and monuments. It contributes 
substantially to the conservation movement in America. Interpreta- 
tion becomes a more important phase of the National Park Service's 
activities and operations from year to year. 

Visitor Centers 

Visitor center, exhibits, programs, and services for better under- 
standing of the National Parks, have demonstrated their value in 
helping visitors enjoy the Parks. 

Six new visitor centers were opened to the public during the fiscal 
year, including centers at Everglades National Park, Fla.; Great 
Smoky Mountains National Park, North Carolina and Tennessee; 
Mt. McKinley National Park, Alaska ; Death Valley National Monu- 



368 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

ment, Calif. ; Effigy Mounds National Monument, Iowa ; and Wright 
Brothers National Memorial, N.C. 

Service to the Public 

The interpretive program of guided trips and talks offered park 
visitors by professional naturalists, historians, and archeologists, sup- 
plemented by self-service facilities such as publications, museum 
exhibits, roadside and trailside exhibits, signs, and markers, and 
audiovisual presentations, both indoors and outdoors, was considerably 
expanded during the 1961 fiscal year. 

A significant increase in personal services is attributable to the 
filling of 25 new interpretive positions. Eleven park areas, pre- 
viously without an interpreter on the staff, were enabled to initiate 
an interpretive program. 

Some 49 nonprofit cooperating associations contributed $119,111.00 
for aid to the National Park Service for research, equipment, books 
and materials used in the interpretive program. These associations 
produced 19 new interpretive publications, bringing the total to 190. 

Roadside and Trailside Interpretation 

Roadside interpretive exhibits, signs, and markers, and self -guided 
trails were developed or expanded in many parks during the 1961 
fiscal year. 

Parks where new roadside or wayside interpretive facilities were 
installed include Great Smoky Mountains, Everglades, Crater Lake, 
Mount McKinley, Olympic, Virgin Islands, and Yosemite National 
Parks; Badlands, Effigy Mounds, George Washington Carver, and 
Fort Frederica National Monuments ; Richmond National Battlefield 
Park; Blue Ridge Parkway; and in a number of other areas of the 
National Park System. 

An innovation in outdoor interpretation is a self -guided underwater 
trail at the Virgin Islands National Park, where swimmers follow 
underwater labels that interpret marine features along the route. 

Audio-Visual Planning and Installation 

The trend toward greater use of interpretive audio-visual devices 
continued during the year. Installations were made as follows: 
Automatic slide/sound equipment in five Park visitor centers; self- 
contained cabinet slide/sound projectors in four visitor centers ; audio- 
visual equipment for five Park amphitheaters; 18 audio stations in 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 369 




Conservation, protection, and restoration are important activities in units of the 
National Park System. Here summer architectural students employed by the 
Historic Structures Section of the National Park Service are working high on the 
tower of Independence Hall, Independence National Historical Park in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 



370 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

nine Parks; one electric map with automatic recorded message; and 
utilization of filmstrip in one automatic installation. 

Significant in future planning were four custom-built, battery- 
powered audio stations, now providing visitor-activated recorded 
messages at such diverse spots as an elevated nature trail in the Ever- 
glades, a mountain pass in Coronado overlooking the route followed 
by Spanish conquistadores, an overlook at Bryce Canyon, and a view 
point in Saguaro. 

Another of the year's developments which may prove equally sig- 
nificant is the use of motion picture animation techniques to bring 
"life" to still photographs in the making of motion pictures. The 
first sound motion picture production thus made — "The Lincoln 
Country" — is proving vastly more effective than the former slide/ 
sound presentation at Lincoln's Birthplace, Kentucky. 

Museum Program 

Fort Sumter National Monument, S.C., converted a coldly func- 
tional gun emplacement into an attractive museum. Eleven other 
parks installed museums in their visitor centers. Fort Frederica, 
Ga., placed weatherproof exhibit cases inconspicuously along the 
streets of the colonial settlement so visitors could rebuild and repeople 
the town in imagination as they explored the site. 

Among historic structures carefully refurnished were Officer's 
Quarters at Fort Laramie National Monument, Wyo., and the Maltese 
Cross Cabin at Theodore Roosevelt National Memorial Park, N. Dak. 

Regional offices have established clearing-house safeguards to assure 
that park collections contain objects important for interpretation, and 
to eliminate inappropriate specimens. 

At Independence Hall National Historical Park in Philadelphia, 
a great eagle painted on the ceiling in Congress Hall has been salvaged 
and will be restored to its honored place. Workmen have also un- 
covered the original fireplaces in the walls of the building. The ceiling 
in Congress Hall was collapsing in the chamber that served as the 
first home of the Senate of the United States. To preserve the intri- 
cate and delicate plaster design of the ceiling tracery, photogram- 
metry techniques were brought into play. Stereoscopic photos were 
made, which permitted the architectural draftsmen to produce precise 
drawings of the design. This means of making accurate and detailed 
drawings opens exciting vistas for the historian, the architect and the 
administrator. 

For example, architectural drawings of a church and steeple which 
would take a crew an entire summer, with scaffolds and all the para- 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 371 

phernalia such a structure would ordinarily require, can be accom- 
plished with photogrammetry techniques for a portion of the cost and 
in a fraction of the time. Stereoscopic pictures, with camera loca- 
tions, angles and distance rigidly controlled, and skilled technicians 
to compute the measurements with the help of precise mechanical 
interpreters, tell more of a building's detail than the most careful 
measurement by traditional methods. 

For this reason, photogrammetry is also coming to be used when- 
ever practicable in the Park Service's Historic American Buildings 
Survey. The H.A.B.S., as the survey is more commonly abbreviated, 
is a joint undertaking of the Park Service, the American Institute 
of Architects and the Library of Congress, to enhance the cultural 
life of the Nation by a comprehensive archive of historic architecture, 
similar to those already existing in Europe. This past fiscal year 
saw a gratifying increase in donations and fuller participation by 
academic and professional organizations. The year's projects con- 
tributed more than 300 sheets of measured drawings, 731 photographs 
and 420 data pages. 

Natural History 

The interrelationships and ecological requirements of park wildlife 
received increasing study because a better understanding of these re- 
quirements is basic to the fullest interpretation, protection, and utiliza- 
tion by the public, of park values. Some major findings : 

On Isle Royale National Park, following many years of severe 
damage to the forest understory by an overpopulation of moose, a 
balance has been restored by a number of preying wolves which arrived 
from Canada. 

In Death Valley National Monument, the interrelationship between 
bighorn sheep, wild burros, and man has been more clearly revealed. 
It had long been thought that burros which ran wild and multiplied 
after being turned loose on the desert by prospectors, were driving the 
native bighorn sheep from their ancestral watering places. This year 
sheep and burros were found watering together in many areas without 
conflict ; molestation and occupancy of water sources by man proved to 
be the major factor in depleting the sheep. 

Research 

Archeological, historical, biological, or geological research was con- 
ducted in most of the National Parks and Monuments by Service per- 
sonnel, cooperators, collaborators, contractors, or other interested 
parties. 



372 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




The quiet crisis of disappearing recreation lands has finally awakened Americans. 
They are tired of going to crowded, overregulated parks. They want space and 
they want quiet. These are other names for freedom. 



Archeological research was carried out in 21 National Park Service 
areas. Major projects were initiated at Everglades, Yosemite, Sequoia- 
Kings Canyon, Olympic, Whitman, Grand Canyon, Appomattox Court 
House, and were continued at Effigy Mounds and at Wetherill Mesa in 
Mesa Verde. 

The service also carried on an extensive archeological salvage pro- 
gram in 35 reservoir areas under cooperative agreements with the 
Smithsonian Institution and 30 State and local institutions. 

Biological research continued on arctic-alpine ecology at Rocky 
Mountain, Grand Teton, and Mount Rainier. Ecological studies were 
continued at Sequoia and Joshua Tree. Fisheries studies were con- 
ducted at Olympic and Everglades. The Desert Bighorn study at 
Death Valley was completed, while wildlife studies at Mount Mc- 
Kinley, Grand Teton, Isle Royale, and Acadia were continued. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 373 

In cooperation with the Department's Geological Survey, glacial 
studies at Mount Rainier and Glacier were continued. Additional 
geologic work was also done at Yellowstone, Wind Cave and Badlands. 

Intensive research in all historical areas continued with special proj- 
ects inaugurated at George Washington Carver and Dinosaur. 

Park Publications 

Increased public interest in the National Park System was reflected 
throughout the year in a larger than ever demand for publications, 
factual reports, maps, folders, and reprints of principal addresses by 
Department and Park Service officials. 

Some 11,314,000 free informational publications were produced and 
more than 889,482 were sold by the Government Printing Office — yet 
the demand far exceeded the supply. 

As in previous years, handbooks on the historical significance and 
natural history of park areas and various reports on the scientific find- 
ings of researchers supplemented the free informational program. 

Printing of foreign-language folders in Spanish, German, French, 
and Russian was authorized for Independence National Historical 
Park in Philadelphia. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings 

The National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings, as part of 
the Mission 66 program, completed inventories and studies of sites and 
buildings in six periods of themes of American history. From these 
studies, the Advisory Board of National Parks, Historic Sites, Build- 
ings and Monuments recommended that 94 sites and structures be 
classified as having exceptional values in illustrating and commemo- 
rating the history of the United States under the terms of the Historic 
Sites Act of 1935. 

These classified sites were approved by the Department as eligible 
of Registered National Historic Landmark status. This new program 
is an outgrowth of the National Survey. It is designed to recognize 
and encourage the preservation of sites and structures by State and 
local agencies, historical societies, and individuals. 

Recognition is accorded by the issuance of Landmark certificates and 
small bronze markers. At the end of the fiscal year, 115 certificates 
and 11 markers had been prepared. The Department does not bear 
the expense of restoring or maintaining these Landmarks. 




Cape Cod National Seashore not only has one of the finest beaches in the United 
States but has an endless variety of recreation opportunities in its heath, marsh, 
forests, and lakes. President Kennedy, on authorizing the establishment of the 
Park, said that he hoped it would be one of a whole series of great seashore parks 
for the use and benefit of all of our people. 



Ranger Activities 

Fiscal year 1961 produced 75,756,000 visits to the National Parks, 
a rise of 6 percent over fiscal 1960. This may be compared with the 
decade 1950-60 average of 6.7 percent annually, during which time the 
population of the country rose at a yearly rate of 1.8 percent. 

Camping continued to overtax facilities and exhibit shifts in pat- 
terns. Of the 4,840,000 camper days recorded during calendar 1960, 
14 percent were spent under overcapacity circumstances, compared 
with 15 percent in the previous year. The trend toward trailer camp- 
ing was evident. Trailer camping in 1960 rose to 26 percent of all 
camping, compared with 23 percent in 1959. 



Forest Fire Control 

For the fourth successive year, the number of fires has increased. 
Subnormal precipitations, dry fuels and other weather factors pro- 
duced ideal burning conditions, especially in the western parks. There 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 375 

were 540 fires, a substantial increase over the previous 5 -year average 
of 345. 

Fire losses amounted to 8,896 acres against the previous 5-year 
average of 7,109, but this loss is still less than the allowable burn 
standard of one-tenth of 1 percent of the total area requiring protec- 
tion from fire. Fire losses in four California national parks contained 
87 percent of the total fire damage area. The ratio of man-caused fires 
to the total number of fires decreased by about 7 percent over the 
previous year. The safety record of no fatalities or serious injuries 
was maintained. 

The use of aircraft and aircraft-supported operations was expanded 
over previous years and was instrumental in holding down damages 
and costs. Fire control personnel had to be rapidly shifted between 
parks and regions to man some of the larger fires. The Department 
of Defense cooperated in the fire suppression activities by supplying 
aircraft when commercial assistance could not be obtained. 

Insect and Tree Disease Control 

Control operations were expanded to combat outbreaks of bark 
beetle infestations, particularly in the pine forests in Yosemite, Se- 
quoia, Kings Canyon, Crater Lake, and Grand Teton National Parks. 
The needleminer which is attacking lodgepole pine in Yosemite Na- 
tional Park has a 2-year life cycle. Direct control to combat the 
infestations in the moth-egg stage was increased. 

The programs for controlling white pine blister rust infections were 
reoriented. Ecological studies of the rust and the development of 
an antibiotic permit deferment of control in some parks but requires 
intensified control in those parks where standards of control are 
higher. Actidione, an antibiotic for infections on western white pine, 
is being used for all control projects where this tree species is present. 

Wildlife Management 

Reappraisal of wildlife management requirements and programs 
revealed the need for increased emphasis on ecological investigations, 
control of overpopulations, and many management oriented activ- 
ities. Acadia National Park accomplished a desirable deer reduction. 
An inventory of fish and wildlife management responsibilities in each 
park was prepared with suggestions for effecting adequate manage- 
ment program staffing. 

Range ecology studies at Grand Teton National Park resulted in 
the formulation of a program for the reduction of elk numbers this 
fall. 



376 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Protection Training 

Park Rangers, staff foresters, fire control aids, blister rust workers, 
and other protection technicians received a wide variety of intensive 
protection training. The numerous facets of ranger activity assign- 
ments require specialized emphasis on such subjects as visitor protec- 
tion, forest and structural fire control, safety for park visitors and 
park employees, search and rescue techniques, wildlife management, 
law enforcement, and mountaineering. 

The second water safety and rescue seminar — specializing in boats 
and boat handling — was conducted at Lake Mead National Recreation 
Area for 25 park rangers and 6 other Federal and State employees. 
The National Park Service Training Center at Yosemite National 
Park graduated 50 Service employees and a Navajo Tribal Parks 
employee. The total number of graduates from the Training Center 
during its 4 years of operation is now 203. 



Operations 

Results of a careful Service-wide reappraisal of the Mission 66 
Development Program are reflected in the April 1961 edition of the 
Control Schedules. This 215-page compendium of actual and pro- 
jected construction and development cost data is revised annually to 
reappraise the Mission 66 10-year development program and future 
long-range planning. 

The latest edition provides a convenient financial summary, by indi- 
vidual parks and construction categories, with summary cost columns 
to show: (1) costs of the first 5 years of Mission 66 (1957-61) ; (2) 
forecast of total Mission 66 costs; (3) annual cost projections for 
years after 1966 through 1972; (4) 1973 and future years costs; and 
(5) grand total costs. 

In addition to the Mission 66 Control Schedules, a 6-year program 
of public works projects, in compliance with Bureau of the Budget 
requirements was prepared. This information covers all areas of 
the Service, in alphabetical arrangement by State and county locations. 

The Branch of Programs has developed procedures for preparing 
and processing formalized programs for certain activities carried on 
with annual operating appropriations. The results of this initial 
activity were utilized in arriving at long-range program goals, as 
shown in the current edition of the Mission 66 Control Schedules. 
Further steps in application of programing principles are being 
worked out and are expected to be put into operation during the next 
fiscal year. 




Haleakala National Park on the island of Maui, 125 miles from Hawaii, was for- 
merly part of Hawaii National Park but was established as a separate National 
Park — the 30th — on July 1, 1961. The dormant volcano has a crater IV2 miles long, 
IVl miles wide, and 21 miles around. The crater floor, 3,000 feet below the 
summit, covers an area of 19 square miles. 



Maintenance 

As a result of a Task Force study, recommendation and subsequent 
approval, maintenance activities in the Regional Offices are now on 
a functional rather than a professional basis as heretofore. 

In recommending the establishment of a Branch of Maintenance 
in each Regional Office, the Task Force stated that a functional type 
organization would pinpoint responsibility and thus the needed im- 
petus would be provided to systematically and continuously assist 
the parks in planning, developing, and carrying out the type of overall 
maintenance program required to protect the Government's investment 
and adequately serve the needs of the visitor. 

Staffing levels commensurate with the workload in each Region have 
been established and action has been taken to realign personnel to 
meet requirements. 



378 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Concessions Activity 

Thirteen concessions authorizations were negotiated, six of which 
have been executed on behalf of the Government. Eight of those 
negotiated included construction programs, with investments totaling 
approximately $10,228,000. These will result in new and improved 
facilities at Lake Mead, Shenandoah, Glen Canyon, Big Bend, Mam- 
moth Cave, Isle Royale, Olympic, Yosemite, Petrified Forest, and 
Blue Eidge Parkway. 

Four prospectuses were issued soliciting offers for facilities at 
Haleakala, Fort Sumter, Lake Mead, and Rocky Mountain. Five 
offers were received as a result of the Fort Sumter prospectus, but none 
resulted from the one issued for Haleakala. The Lake Mead and 
Rocky Mountain ones are still outstanding. 

Virginia Peaks of Otter, Inc., completed restaurants and service 
stations at Whetstone Ridge and Otter Creek in Blue Ridge costing 
about $200,000; Yosemite Park and Curry Company spent about 
$500,000 in improvements in Yosemite; Fred Harvey completed new 
facilities on the South Rim of Grand Canyon costing about $160,600 ; 
and Virginia Sky-Line Company invested nearly $377,000 in new 
facilities in Shenandoah. Concessioners also completed improve- 
ments at Glacier, Grand Teton, Hawaii, Lake Mead, Lassen, National 
Capital Parks, Rocky Mountain, and Yellowstone, totaling approxi- 
mately $536,355. 

Other Activities 

The House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee issued a state- 
ment confirming the concessions policies of the Service, and further 
resolved that the policy of granting a preferential opportunity to 
existing concessioners to negotiate a new contract, if service has been 
satisfactory during the life of their expiring contracts, shall be in- 
terpreted to apply to nonprofit distributing organizations. 

Land Acquisition 

Appropriations for the purchase of lands during fiscal year 1961 
totaled $2,475,000, allocated as follows: $400,000, Civil War areas; 
$500,000, Minute Man National Historical Park; $250,000, Independ- 
ence National Historical Park; $540,000, Mammoth Cave National 
Park; $275,000, Castillo de San Marcos National Monument; $100,000, 
Petrified Forest National Monument; and $410,000 in other areas of 
the National Park System. Some 26,450 acres were acquired by 
purchase, donation, transfer, or exchange, of which 2,440 acres were 
donated. 



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Bumside Bridge at Antietam National Battlefield Site is of both scenic and historic 
interest and illustrates the Service's dedication to the conservation of the scenic, 
scientific, and historic heritage of the United States for the benefit and inspiration 
of its people. 

Completed purchases and accepted options cover 2,830 acres of land 
in Glacier, Mammoth Cave, Rocky Mountain, and Yosemite National 
Parks ; Badlands, Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Capitol Reef, Cas- 
tillo de San Marcos, Joshua Tree, and Petrified Forest National 
Monuments ; Gettysburg National Military Park ; Manassas National 
Battlefield Park; Fort Clatsop National Memorial; and Gloria Dei 
National Historic Site. 

The purchases of the Great Onyx and Crystal Caves in Mammoth 
Cave National Park were the most significant acquisitions during the 
year. 



Water Resources and Water Rights 

The Department approved, with the concurrence of the Secretary 
of Agriculture, the application of the city and county of San Fran- 
cisco under the Raker Act of 1913 for a change in a right-of-way 
location at the Hetch Hetchy project, Yosemite National Park and 
Stanislaus National Forest. The change, as approved, will permit a 



380 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

tunnel to be constructed between O'Shaughnessy Dam and Early In- 
take on the north side of the Tuolumne River under appropriate stipu- 
lations regarding the release of water to the stream for preservation 
of fish life and esthetic values. 

A major problem has arisen in southern Florida involving the 
Everglades National Park as a result of the planning and develop- 
ment of the southern Florida flood control project of the Corps of 
Engineers. It will be imperative to provide a systematic release of 
water to the park to preserve its natural conditions. Preliminary 
discussions with the Corps of Engineers to achieve the desired results 
were started this past year. 



Design and Construction 

At the outset of fiscal year 1961, more than $106 million was avail- 
able for 1,365 projects for the construction programs of the National 
Park Service, including balances from preceding years. This in- 
creased to 1,559 projects at more than $108 million. By June 30 
more than 88 percent of these funds were obligated and contracts 
for 719 projects totaling more than $71 million were active. Four 
hundred and thirty-eight projects totaling more than $21 million, 
were completed. With the expanded construction programs 24 con- 
tracts for professional and engineering services were consummated. 

Roads and Trails 

There were 125 miles of major road projects under construction at 
a cost of $11,847,975 for 28 projects. Fourteen projects covering 
over 52 miles of reconstruction and about one-half mile of new con- 
struction were completed at a cost of $4,407,437. Also 17 projects 
totaling 139 miles of reconstruction and 7 miles of new construction 
were placed under contract at a cost of $7,716,625. Eleven miles of 
the reconstruction were completed. 

Completions included reconstruction of the Jackson Lake Road at 
Grand Teton, the Bear Lake Cutoff at Rocky Mountain, three bridges 
at Yellowstone, the East Rim Drive at Grand Canyon, two bridges 
at Mount McKinley, a portion of the Newfound Gap at Great Smoky 
Mountains, the Cape Royal Road at Grand Canyon, the Nisqually 
River Bridge at Mount Rainier, and paving of the Tioga Road at 
Yosemite. 

Larger projects placed under contract were the New Fremont 
River Road at Capital Reef, reconstruction of the Chief Mountain 
Road at Glacier, a portion of the park road at Mount McKinley, by- 




The National Park Service is increasing the number of visitor centers where 
audiovisual programs — employing improved electronic equipment — supplement 
personal services to explain the natural or historic aspects of the park or monument 
to the visitors. 



pass road at Hawaii, Walnut Canyon Road at Carlsbad, and the final 
portion of the Newfound Gap Road at Great Smoky Mountains. 
The Cape Royal Road at Grand Canyon, the Two-Medicine Road at 
Glacier, and the Arnica Creek-Bridge Bay portion of the Grand 
Loop at Yellowstone, were completed. 

Projects involving 164 minor roads and trails in 63 parks totaling 
more than $6,800,000 were completed. Among these were rehabili- 
tation of tour roads in Saratoga; walks, trails, and parking area at 
Mammoth Cave ; the Painted Desert Road system in Petrified Forest ; 
and the road system in the Grand development, Yellowstone. Park- 
ing space and campground facilities were significantly increased. 

A large number of projects were completed on the motor roads and 
in adjoining recreational areas. The completions on roads repre- 
sented 20 major contracts costing approximately $8,800,000, including 
30 miles of paving, 46 miles of surface treatment, 30 miles of grading 
and base course work, and 20 bridges and grade separations. A 14- 
mile section of the Blue Hidge was opened near Roanoke and except 
for a missing link of 15 miles, it is complete in Virginia. In North 



382 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Carolina, 12 miles of paving was completed and except for 5% miles 
travel is continuous for 96 miles from the State line to Asheville. A 
new 13-mile section was opened where the Parkway soars to a climactic 
four State view at an elevation of 5,820 feet. 

Parkways 

The National Parkways construction program was concentrated on 
additional visitor facilities and the provision of continuous travel. 
The $16 million contract authorization provided the following: Blue 
Ridge Parkway $4,058,300, Natchez Trace Parkway $4,574,000, Foot- 
hills Parkway $3,075,200, Colonial Parkway $20,400, George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway $3,537,500, Baltimore- Washington 
Parkway $359,200, Palisades Parkway $175,000, and advance plan- 
ning $200,000. 

On the Natchez Trace remaining grading and several major bridges 
were completed on the 165-mile unit between Jackson and Tupelo; 
112 miles were paved. Public service features completed on the Blue 
Ridge and Natchez Trace included picnic grounds, campground roads, 
trails, comfort stations, and utility systems. 

On June 30, there were 33 major contracts totaling approximately 
$24,700,000 in process under the Bureau of Public Roads major roads 
program, including 75 miles of final paving, 66 miles of grading and 
base course work, 23 bridges and grade separations, 8 tunnels, and 
other road work. About $10 million worth of construction is on the 
Blue Ridge, $5,800,000 on Natchez Trace, and $6,700,000 on George 
Washington Memorial Parkway. 

Advisory services provided jointly by the Bureau of Public Roads 
and the Service were started in Tennessee on the Great River Road. 
This will be a mile-to-mile location and boundary report which will 
allow the Mississippi River States to proceed with lands and access 
control for protection of the Parkway corridor. 

Buildings 

Visitor centers were completed at Everglades (where $33,000 was 
spent to repair damage by Hurricane Donna), Devils Tower, Petri- 
fied Forest, and Fort Vancouver ; four are under construction. Also 
completed were a Sports Center at Rock Creek and Potomac Parkway. 
One dormitory and 46 permanent and 33 seasonal Park residences 
were completed. An additional 44 residences are under construction. 

A $3,796,000 contract was awarded at Jefferson National Expansion 



jOTMrriragSi 




The National Park Service opened 10 new visitor centers to the public during the 
budget year. Like this one at Wright Brothers National Memorial in North Caro- 
lina, they are equipped with audio-visual and other display material to make the 
presentation of the park story more effective and attractive to the ever-increasing 
lumber of visitors. 



Memorial for the building of the grand steps and side steps to the 
overlook structures, foundations for the Gateway Arch and Visitor 
Center, and relocation of Levee Street and the railroad tracks east 
>f the Memorial. Including Federal, city, and Terminal Railroad 
funds, $23 million has been authorized for the Memorial. It is 
scheduled for completion in 1964. 

Utilities and Miscellaneous Structures 

The Service continued its expansion of public use facilities and 
niscellaneous structures; such as sand stabilization at Cape Hatteras; 
Iredging lagoon at Bridge Bay, Yellowstone; and grounds improve- 
nent at Independence. A total of 146 projects in 115 parks totaling 
nore than $3 million were completed. Also 92 water and sewer proj- 
ects in 74 parks, totaling over $5 million were completed, notably the 



384 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

water and sewer system in Grand Canyon, which included a 3 million- 
gallon water storage facility ; a new water supply system at Petrified 
Forest; and additional utilities in Yellowstone totaling more than 
$500,000. 

Sixteen power or communication projects in 23 parks were com- 
pleted. Outstanding were the leased two-way radio systems at 
Natchez Trace at a cost of $525,000, a similar system at Blue Ridge, 
$452,000, and another at St. Johns, Virgin Islands, $47,000. 

Master Plans 

In keeping with the Service's objective of providing at least some 
visitor use facilities in parks immediately after establishment, good 
progress has been made toward the development of Master Plans for 
new parks. Construction of facilities in conformance with the Mastei 
Plans has already been started or scheduled in Horseshoe Bend, Pea 
Ridge, Wilsons Creek, Russell Cave, Flaming Gorge, and Glen Canyon 



National Capital Parks 

National Capital Park facilities in fiscal 1961 were used by an 
estimated total of nearly 141 million persons. Of this figure, more 
than 514 million were counted at the five major memorials. There 
were 366 special events. 

A new C&O Canal barge, more authentic historically, with improved 
public address system and passenger comforts, replaced the old barge 
in May. Visitor hours at the Washington Monument and Lincoln 
Memorial were extended. In its first year of operation, 125,000 par- 
ticipants used the Rock Creek Nature Center, overtaxing facilities in 
May, June, and October. 

Operation of the 194-man United States Park Police force helped 
to cut traffic accidents and crime incidence. New uniforms, high visi- 
bility outer-garments for traffic control, an up-to-date "mobile 
relay" radio system, and intensive training all contributed to the 
improvements. 

With the worst winter in two decades, National Capital Parks used 
4,600 tons of sand, 79 tons of calcium chloride, and incurred the ex- 
pense of $100,000 for patching potholes in park roads caused by freez- 
ing and thawing. Research continues on Dutch elm tree diseases and 
turf improvement. Propagation of plants included 18,000 at nurs- 
eries and greenhouses and 3,900 waterlilies and lotuses at Kenilworth, 
Some 60,000 plants were used in display beds. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



385 




Zrowds of interested visitors to Harpers Ferry National Monument gather around 
i park historian for information and guidance — typical of visitor activity in most 
>/ the historic sites and battlefields being administered by the National Park 



Mission 66 Improvements 

Noteworthy among these were the Harry T. Thompson Boat Center, 
'econstruction of Bingham Drive in Rock Creek Park, improvements 
o Pulaski Park, new tennis courts in East Potomac Park, exterior 
>ainting of Executive Mansion, campfire circle at Catoctin, and a 
ire house at Prince William Forest Park. 

Contract work for fiscal 1961 shows: 21 contracts completed at a 
:ost of $1,172,151; 11 contracts in progress at a cost of $2,795,945; 
md 16 contracts to be awarded before June 30 at an estimated cost 
>f $1,507,540, for a grand total of $5,475,636. 

Important planning work in progress includes the Park Operations 
3uilding, restoration of Ford's Theater, and development of Greenbelt 
3 ark. 




Pottawatomie County in northeastern Kansas is the location of a proposed Prairi 
National Park — a plan to conserve a sizable representative section of the prairi 
as nearly as possible in its original condition. 



Planning and Land Acquisition 

Legislation was introduced for (1) acquiring 790 acres at Grea 
Falls, Va., now on a 50-year lease; (2) acquiring Mockley Point are* 
opposite Mount Vernon ; (3) extending George Washington Memoria 
Parkway from Mount Vernon to Woodlawn; and (4) establishing 
Board to screen proposed memorials in National Capital Parks areas 
Added to park lands were 388.63 acres valued at $1,188,512. Lost hy 
transfer or sale were 5.03 acres assessed at $511,591. 



Budget and Finance 

The Service's financial position was further strengthened througl 
appropriation increases for the 1961 fiscal year. There follows a com 
parison of the 1961 appropriations with those for 1960 : 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



387 




Campers at the Elkmont Campground in the Great Smokies pick their own spot 
and register by inserting an "occupied by" card in the proper card holder on the 
big board. On leaving the campers remove their card and the board once again 
shows a "vacancy." 

I960 1961 

Appropriation item Fiscal year Fiscal year Increase 

Management and protection $16, 772, 000 $20, 509, 000 $3, 737, 000 

Maintenance and rehabilitation of phys- 
ical facilities 14, 435, 000 15, 800, 000 1, 365, 000 

General administrative expenses 1,475,000 1,581,000 106,000 

Construction 16, 735, 000 21, 528, 000 4, 793, 000 

Construction (liquidation of contract 

authorization) 30,000,000 30,000,000 

Total cash appropriations 79, 417, 000 89, 418, 000 10, 001, 000 

onstruction (amount by which roads 
and trails and parkways contract au- 
thorization exceeds cash appropri- 
ation) 6,000,000 4,000,000 -2,000,000 



Total new obligational authority— 85, 417, 000 93, 418, 000 



001,000 



Of the total increases reflected in the foregoing, $1,576,000 was for 
ncreased salary costs as authorized by Public Laws 85-584 and 86- 
>68; $1,079,000 was required to meet unusual emergency costs incident 
;o forest fire suppressions, building fire losses, and storm damages; 
ind $2,953,000 for construction at Jefferson National Expansion 
Memorial. The remainder, $4,393,000, was for strengthening the 
various Service programs, including Mission 66 development. 



388 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Audit Activity 

Substantial progress was made during this fiscal year in achieving 
the desired 3-year audit cycle for approximately 200 concessioners, 
208 area and field finance offices, and 48 natural history and history 
associations cooperating with and rendering aid to the National Park 
Service. Approximately 50 percent of the field finance offices, 25 
percent of the areas and concessioners, and 30 percent of the cooperat- 
ing associations were audited during the fiscal year. In addition, 
special financial examinations were conducted covering prospective 
concessioners, an electric power company, and certain entrance station 
activities. 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1962 O — 634555 



ITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 
Stewart L. Udall, Secretary 




Annual 
Report 



1962 



NATIONAL PARK SERV 



Conrad L. Wirth, Director 



flERSINff 



National Park Service 

Conrad L. Wirth, Director 




* 



r 4 



Enjoyment of A Heritage; Protection of A 

Legacy 

At the White House Conference on Conservation last spring, 
^resident John F. Kennedy said: "I don't think there is anything 
hat could occupy our attention with more distinction than trying to 
>reserve for those who come after us this beautiful country which 
ve have inherited." 

In the spirit of this message, and during a year in which Secretary 
>f the Interior Stewart L. Udall called for a national conservation 
effort "to secure an adequate resources base for the future, and to 
)lan the use of our land resources so that material progress and the 
Teation of a life-giving environment will go hand in hand," the 
Department's National Park Service: 

— Established a close working relationship with the new 
Recreation Advisory Council and the recently established Bureau 
of Outdoor Recreation in the common mission to bring about 
improved interagency cooperation and to develop coordinated 
national outdoor recreation policies. 

— Saw three new areas added to the National Park System: 
Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts; City of Refuge 
National Historical Park, Hawaii; and Buck Island Reef National 
Monument near St. Croix in the Virgin Islands. 

— Recorded over 82,300,000 visits to national parks and related 
areas, representing an increase of 8.6 percent over the previous 
year. 

— Observed a 4.4-percent increase in camping, with over 
5,051,000 camper days recorded. 

19 



80 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

— Entered into a contract with the National Academy of 
Sciences, initiating a study of natural history research needs of 
the national parks. The Academy, on the basis of its findings, 

will advise and make recommendations for a research program 
designed to provide data for effective protection, management, 
development and interpretation of the national parks, and to 
encourage greater use of the national parks for basic research. 

— Constructed 9 new visitor centers and installed 16 new 
museums in parks throughout the country — permitting a better 
program of interpretation. 

— Continued efforts to round out a National Park System that 
will be adequate in meeting the needs of the Nation — now and 
in the future — with major emphasis and priority on Secre- 
tary Udall's campaign to preserve some of America's few remain- 
ing undeveloped natural areas along seashores, lakeshores, and 
free-flowing streams. 

— Was tremendously encouraged by President Kennedy's 
special message on conservation urging the Congress to take 
"favorable action on legislation to create Point Reyes National 
Seashore in California; Great Basin National Park in Nevada; 
Ozark Rivers National Monument in Missouri; Sagamore Hill 
National Historic Site in New York; Canyonlands National 
Park in Utah; Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore in 
Michigan; Prairie National Park in Kansas; Padre Island National 
Seashore in Texas; a National Lakeshore Area in Northern 
Indiana; and Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wisconsin." 

— Worked with the Department's other agencies in support of 
the broad principles of wilderness legislation now before the 
Congress. 

— Cooperated in advanced planning in anticipation of the 
passage of youth employment legislation which would establish 
a Youth Conservation Corps designed to offer outdoor employ- 
ment in the Nation's parks, forests, and other public lands. 

— Stepped up its Mission 66 park improvement program. 

— Completed a 5-year survey of existing and potential parks 
and related types of recreation areas. In a State-by-State investi- 
gation conducted in cooperation with the States, 4,800 existing 
and 2,800 potential parks and recreation areas were identified. 
These findings were turned over to the Department's Bureau of 
Outdoor Recreation. 

— Increased the use of helicopters to provide better adminis- 
tration, maintenance and protection, especially in mountainous 
and otherwise inaccessible back-country areas where this type of 
equipment offers the only fast and reliable methods for emergency 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 81 

rescue missions, combating forest fires and other forestry work 
such as control of insect infestation and disease. 

— Participated in the Federal and State aerial reconnaissance 
of storm damage in six States following the disastrous storm of 
March 6 and 7, 1962, along the Atlantic coast. Shore damage 
along the barrier beaches was particularly severe at shorefront 
developments of Atlantic seashore resorts. The Service published 
a report which explored the question of dedicating shoreline por- 
tions of barrier beaches to public use and recommended various 
means for prevention of the recurrence of such devastation to 
private property along barrier beaches in the future. 

— Welcomed the addition of more women to the uniformed 
staff of the National Park System as interpretive specialists. 

— Cosponsored the First World Conference on National Parks, 
Seattle, Wash., June 30-July 7, 1962, in cooperation with the In- 
ternational Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural 
Resources (IUCN), the Natural Resources Council of America, 
and other United Nations organizations and Federal agencies. 
Representatives from 63 foreign countries were guests of the 
National Park Service at Mount Rainier, Olympic, Yellowstone, 
and Grand Teton National Parks. 

— Placed special emphasis during the year on interpretive work 
in Civil War areas of the National Park System to meet the im- 
pact of increased visits engendered by Civil War centennial 
observances sponsored by State and local organizations. Many 
special exhibits were prepared in visitor centers of the National 
Park System, and the Service cooperated in many special com- 
memorative programs such as the reenactment of the Rattle of 
Manassas. 



Public Affairs 



The National Park System preserves physical evidences of the 
growth of a magnificent and fruitful Nation. It is no wonder — as we 
come increasingly to grips with the pressures of our modern world — 
that Americans turn to their heritage for a renewal of spiritual strength 
and pioneering determination. 

Today, Americans are crowding the highways and visiting the 
parks and recreational areas of the country as never before in history. 
Yearly visits to the national parks have leaped from 22 million only 
15 years ago to more than 80 million last year — and the demands of 
the public for information about the places they visit have increased in 
the same ratio. 



82 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

A new emphasis toward meeting the needs of American and foreign 
friends visiting the national parks is evidenced in the interpretation of 
these areas through audiovisual services, museums, visitor centers, 
informative publications, guided trails, and campfire talks. 

Emphasis has also been placed on keeping up with the demands for 
photographic services to supply the requirements of newspapers, 
magazines, television, and other public relations media. 

Our responsibility is not only to the millions who visit the parks, 
but also to the many more millions who are unable to see the wonders 
themselves and must rely on the printed word and pictures. 

Publication and Service Programs 

Emphasis to date in the publications program has been to produce 
folders on each of the respective areas of the National Park Service. 
But more and more, Americans are demanding additional informa- 
tional material. In 1962, the Service printed 4,409,000 copies of 165 
free informational publications for the various areas, plus 145,000 
copies of 5 general free informational publications. The present publi- 
cations program provides approximately one folder for every six 
visitors. 

A Division of Extension Services was established during the year to 
provide staff guidance and assistance in connection with Service-spon- 
sored special public events, dedications, observances, and meetings, 
as well as Service participation in public meetings sponsored by other 
organizations. The Division also provides liaison services with con- 
servation and education groups, universities and schools, and is re- 
sponsible for developing and carrying out public information programs 
for needed park resources protection measures. 

Requests for National Park Service photographs rose 40 percent 
during the year, mirroring the interest in Secretary UdalFs proposals 
for new areas for the National Park System. More than 10,000 prints 
of photographs were loaned upon request for use by various informa- 
tion media and in educational programs. 

Audiovisual 

The trend toward greater use of audiovisual devices in the interpre- 
tive and educational program of the Service accelerated tremendously. 
Included in the year's accomplishments were : 

— the completion of 10 amphitheaters, 

— installation of 51 audio stations, 

— installation of 17 automatic slide/sound projection systems 
in visitor centers, 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 83 

— installation of public announcement systems in four visitor 
centers, 

— addition of 17 cabinet projector installations utilizing cap- 
tioned slides, 

— construction of two automatic electric maps with synchro- 
nized sound, 

— equipping of two visitor center auditoriums for "live" 
presentations, 

— improvement of the program for five existing installations. 
Park interpretation in foreign language continued. A captioned 

slide presentation in the Spanish language was installed alongside a 
similar English version at San Juan National Historic Site, Puerto 
Rico. The enthusiastic reception being given the foreign language 
tape recordings by foreign visitors to the Liberty Bell in Independence 
Hall, Philadelphia, suggests that such service for foreign visitors 
should be considered for other areas as well. 

International Cooperation 

A Division of International Cooperation was established in response 
to the growing interest of foreign visitors in America's national parks — 
evidenced, during the year, by 2,100 letters of inquiry from abroad 
and by more than a thousand foreign visitors who were received by or 
had made personal contact with various staff members of the National 
Park Service. 

In cooperation with the International Union for the Conservation 
of Nature and Natural Resources (1UCN), the Natural Resources 
Council of America, and other United Nations organizations and Fed- 
eral agencies, the National Park Service cosponsored the First World 
Conference on National Parks held in Seattle, Wash., June 30-July 
7, 1962. The meeting, which had as its theme, "National Parks Are 
of International Significance," was attended by more than 300 pro- 
fessional park people representing some 63 nations throughout the 
world. 

The basic purpose of the meeting was to further international 
coordination of world conservation efforts and to encourage further 
the establishment of new parks and reserves throughout the world. 

Conservation, Interpretation, and Use 

The Service reorganization during the fiscal year brought about 
a gathering of staff divisions concerned primarily with actual park 
operational activities into a single organizational group under the 



84 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

supervision of Assistant Director of Conservation, Interpretation, and 
Use. This brought into close association the interrelated functions 
of maintenance, protection, interpretation, visitor use, research, and 
resource management. 

Conservation Activities 

A major objective common to most legislation related to the 
National Park Service places emphasis on preservation from injury 
and spoliation; conserving the scenery and the natural and historic 
objects and the wildlife therein for the benefit and enjoyment of the 
people now and in the future. 

Conserving these values and assuring the welfare of park visitors 
required positive protection and carefully regulated use. 




This bull elk died from starvation in Yellowstone National Park. The 
calf in the background is only hours away from death. Overpopulation of 
elk in the park destroyed the vegetative cover and opened the range to heavy 
erosion. Quick action in reducing elk populations strengthened the herd 
and protected park values. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 85 

Forests, Soils and Water 

Forest fire control efforts reached an alltime high in fiscal year 1962. 
Alert and trained fire crews and the expanded use of aircraft achieved 
early control of many fires under hazardous conditions. In the 
first half of 1962 drought conditions prevailed in the Southeast. 
Halfway through its fire season by the end of fiscal year 1962, Ever- 
glades National Park had 20 fires, almost double the 10-year average 
of 1 1 fires. The Shark Valley fire in Everglades, largest fire in Service 
history and originating outside the park, burned from May 15 to 
June 20, 1962, over an area of 184,544 acres — 77,664 acres of this was 
parkland. Major control projects were conducted to combat out- 
breaks of western pine beetles in Lassen Volcanic, Yosemite, Sequoia, 
and Kings Canyon; mountain pine beetles in Grand Teton; lodgepole 
pine needle miner in Yosemite; and gypsy moth in Acadia. Programs 
for control of white pine blister rust through eradication of the alter- 
nate host and the use of antibiotics were continued in 10 parks. 

Soil and water conservation measures to restore deteriorated lands 
were carried out in 20 parks. Management controls were increased 
to prevent destruction of fragile meadows and vegetative cover 
types in the high mountains. Range grazing was reduced by 800 
animal unit months in the western parks. An AUM (animal unit 
month) is based on the amount of food (grazing) required to feed one 
cow or five sheep for 1 month in a particular location, which may 
vary in carrying capacity, and which, in turn, depends upon climate, 
soil, and other growing conditions. The total grazing in 18 parks 
was 85,342 AUM's. Pasturing to maintain scenes in historical parks 
required 24,209 AUM's. 

Wildlife 

There are very few places in the world today other than in national 
parks where opportunities are available for the public to observe and 
photograph wildlife under natural conditions. To insure that public 
enjoyment continues, wildlife management programs are directed at 
attaining an optimum relationship between all animals consistent 
with the native flora and in harmony with the conservation of other 
park values. 

Increased bear-management programs this year resulted in a 
significant reduction of personal injuries and property damage to the 
visitors. Studies of both grizzly and black bears continued in 
Yellowstone. 

Studies at Grand Teton National Park resulted in recommendations 
for an elk-management program in portions of that park. Public 
hunters were deputized to participate in the 1961 program under the 



86 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




Wildlife management programs of the National Park Service are directed 
at attaining an optimum relationship between all animals consistent with the 
native flora and in harmony with the conservation of other park features. 
In Everglades National Park, Fla., above, one can see and photograph 
alligators in their natural habitat. 



provisions of Public Law 787 and removed 278 elk. Cooperative elk 
studies with State and other Federal agencies were developed in 
Rocky Mountain and Yellowstone National Parks. 

Other elk-management programs were conducted in Yellowstone, 
Glacier, and Rocky Mountain. The outstanding management pro- 
gram for the year was the successful removal of 4,555 elk from the 
northern Yellowstone elk herd by park rangers. The overpopulation 
of elk had already driven out two other species, the beaver and the 
whitetailed deer. 

Acadia, Grand Canyon, Mammoth Cave, and Sequoia and Kings 
Canyon carried on limited deer-management programs. Wind Cave, 
Yellowstone, and Grand Teton disposed of 237 surplus buffalo. 
Death Valley, Lake Mead, Great Smoky Mountains, and Hawaii 
Volcanoes conducted management programs directed at control of 
feral burros, pigs, goats, and boars. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 87 

Fishery studies were carried on in cooperation with the Depart- 
ment's Fish and Wildlife Service in Yellowstone, Rocky Mountain, 
Mount Rainier, Olympic, and Isle Roy ale. Seventeen areas carried 
on stocking programs. 

Interpretation Activities 

The values and purposes of the national parks were explained to 
an increasing number of visitors by the addition of new visitor centers, 
roadside and trailside signs and facilities, publications, and personnel. 

In recognition of an obligation to provide equal opportunities for 
women, the Service welcomed the addition of more women this year 
to the uniformed staff of the National Park System as interpretive 
specialists. 

A new venture began with authorization of sound and light pro- 
grams for Independence Hall in Philadelphia and for Castillo de 
San Marcos National Monument in St. Augustine, Fla. Modeled 
after the spectacular night programs presented first at the Castle 
of Chambord and Palace of Versailles in France and now widely 
given throughout Europe, they offer a dramatic presentation of 
history, using controlled light and recorded stereophonic sounds, 
narrative, and dialog. The first such program in this country began 
at Independence Hall on July 4, 1962, followed by that at the Castillo 
later in the summer. 

Visitor Centers 

Nine new visitor centers were opened: Big Bend National Park, 
Tex.; Petrified Forest National Monument, Ariz.; Great Sand Dunes 
National Monument, Colo.; Homestead National Monument, Nebr.; 
Fort Donelson National Military Park, Tenn.; Gettysburg National 
Military Park, Pa.; Saratoga National Historical Park, N.Y.; Fort 
Vancouver National Historic Site, Wash.; and Natchez Trace Park- 
way, Mississippi, Tennessee, and Alabama. 

Exhibit Installation 

Sixteen parks installed museums — seven in new visitor centers, 
five in enlarged or remodeled ones, and four in existing buildings. 
More than 300 exhibits were installed in visitor center museums from 
coast to coast to help interpret the varied stories our parks have 
to tell. 

An example is the remodeled center in Fredericksburg, Va., which 
shows how a Confederate officer lived during a hard winter of the 
Civil War, complete with folding camp cot, writing desk and other 
paraphernalia of the period. In the new visitor center at Great 



88 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Sand Dunes, an exhibit uses animated diagrams to show how sand 
moves to form the dunes. 

Another, at the Homestead center, features a unique cold-roller 
mangle which used large rocks to provide the weight needed for the 
pioneer mother to iron the family wash. A slide-sound program 
accompanies the machine to explain how she used it. Eight scale 
dioramas, from Saratoga, N.Y., to Fort Vancouver, Wash., capture 
some of the great moments in our history. 

The Service participated in the White House Historical Association 
program by working with the Smithsonian to provide exhibits on the 
development of the Executive Mansion. 

Museum Collections 

Parks have added many fine Museum specimens. These include a 
rare German astrolobe by Johann Krabbe, dated 1582, donated to the 
collections of Fort Caroline, Fla.; an outstanding group of Spanish 
arms added to the holdings of Tumacacori, Ariz.; military uniforms and 
flags from the Spanish Army Museum for Castillo de San Marcos, 
Fla.; and two Congressional Medals of Honor for display at the 
Chancellorsville and Stones River, Tenn., centers. 

The Service has continued its program of preserving specimens, 
paintings, and furnishings in the collections of the parks. It completed 
one of the largest such projects undertaken, the painstaking restoration 
and rehanging of the famed Gettysburg Cyclorama in the new visitor 
center. The magnificent painting, 353 feet in circumference and 27 
feet high, serves as the centerpiece for an inspiring program, supported 
by sound effects and an inspirational narrative. 

Roadside and Trailside Interpretation 

Roadside interpretive facilities were developed or substantially 
improved in 17 scenic-scientific parks and in 16 historic ones. The 
installation of interpretive signs, markers, and trails along the Tioga 
Road in Yosemite typifies effective ' 'self-service' ' interpretation along 
park roads. 

Coordinated planning with Service architects and landscape archi- 
tects has produced the Lee's Hill Shelter panels, Fredericksburg, Va., 
and the High Water Mark Tour exhibits, Gettysburg, Pa. Greater 
use of more durable materials, like metal photos, brought encouraging 
results in on-site exhibits. 

While self-service interpretation was improved and expanded on a 
wide front, the program of conducted trips and talks was also increased. 
In Yosemite National Park, naturalist-led High Sierra 7-day hikes 
were resumed after 20 years. Permanent and seasonal interpretive 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 89 




Secretary of the Interior Stewart L. Udall examines a statue of Theodore 
Roosevelt with Oscar Strauss, president of the Theodore Roosevelt Association, 
at the Roosevelt Birthplace, New York City. The building is an area 
recommended as a national historic site. 



staffs were enlarged and 13 new amphitheaters and campfire circles 
were completed, resulting in an expansion of evening programs in 
parks where visitors stay overnight. 



90 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



''f 




An astro lobe made, signed, and dated by Johann Krabbe in 1582, was recently 
acquired by the National Park Service. An unusually fine specimen contain- 
ing much astronomical detail, it is believed to be the only 16th century astro- 
lobe in the Western Hemisphere heavy enough to have been used for naviga- 
tion. Purchased and donated anonymously, it will be exhibited at Fort 
Caroline National Memorial, Fla. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 91 

Historic Houses 

The House of Representatives in Congress Hall, Independence 
National Historical Park, Philadelphia, has been refurnished to the 
period of the 1790's when it resounded with the debates of legislators 
of a young nation. A Federal eagle, painted on the ceiling of the 
Senate Chamber in Congress Hall, painstakingly removed last year, 
has been restored and replaced. 

The restoration program of Fort Laramie, Wyo., has continued 
with the refurnishing of the Sutler's Store and a second officers' 
quarters. 

Cooperating Associations 

Some 53 nonprofit cooperating associations contributed $169,941 
for aid to the National Park Service for research, equipment, books, 
and materials used in the interpretive program. These associations 
produced 29 new publications for sale in the areas. A full-color 
publication, "Jamestown to Yorktown From Settlement to Nation- 
hood," has won two national awards. "History of the United States 
Flag" has received national recognition. Both were produced by the 
Eastern National Park & Monument Association. "Mammals of the 
Southwest Mountains and Mesas," was published by Southwestern 
Monuments Association. 

Research Efforts 

Historical research studies, 46 in all, were completed during 1962 by 
Service historians. "Puerto Rico and the Elizabethan Age: An 
Historical Analysis of the Attack by the Earl of Cumberland Against 
the Island of Puerto Rico," expanded our knowledge of San Juan 
National Historic Site. Other notable studies covered such subjects 
as restoration of the Russian Blockhouse at Sitka, Alaska; General 
Andrew Jackson's "Mud Rampart" defense line at the Battle of New 
Orleans. Twenty-two studies relating to the Civil War were com- 
pleted during its second centennial year and included a study of "Clara 
Barton at Antietam." 

Two historians were sent to Spain during the year to procure his- 
torical data from Spanish archival sources and to purchase, in part 
with donated funds, historic objects and specimens needed for museum 
purposes at San Juan, Castillo de San Marcos, and Fort Raleigh. 

Archeology 

Archeological research was carried on in 31 areas of the system, 
the largest program to date. Major projects were initiated at Cape 



92 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Cod, Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, and others continued at Acadia, 
Grand Portage, Independence, and Hopewell Village. Historical 
archeology conducted in seven areas supplemented and verified 
historical records. Historic objects were found in some primarily 
prehistoric sites, as at Ocmulgee, filling in knowledge of early European 
contact with the Indians. At Isle Royale, a survey is providing im- 
portant data on aboriginal and early historic sites. 

The Service has been vigilant to prevent destruction of archeological 
remains that might be lost through construction in areas of the system. 
During the year a major salvage project was initiated at Ocmulgee 
where Interstate Highway 16 will cross the monument. It was 
financed by the State of Georgia at a cost of $155,000, reimbursed by 
the Bureau of Public Roads. 

The Wetherill Mesa project passed the halfway point. Mine sites 
which present a thorough coverage of the Indians who lived at Mesa 
Verde are being excavated. For the fourth year, the National Geo- 




Archeologists salvage prehistoric artifacts and scientific information from a 
5,000-year-old Indian campsite near the new Red Willow Dam in Nebraska, 
while cooperative construction crews work around them to shape the new 
reservoir basin. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 93 

graphic Society donated $50,000. It is one of the major endeavors of 
New World archeology, matching in scope, duration, and financial 
support the most ambitious past undertakings. 

Salvage Archeology in River Basins 

The Service continued its extensive salvage program in reservoir 
areas with the cooperation of Federal, State, and local organizations. 
There were 62 salvage projects in 35 States with 34 cooperating insti- 
tutions. The Smithsonian Institution had 3 field parties in the 
Missouri River basin in the fall, and 16-18 work crews for the season 
beginning June 1962. 

The University of Utah, Museum of Northern Arizona, University 
of Colorado, and Museum of New Mexico cooperated with the Service 
on the Upper Colorado River project, conducting surveys and exca- 
vations in Glen Canyon, Fontenelle, Flaming Gorge, and Navajo 
Reservoirs, and the Blue Mesa unit of the Curecanti project. 

The University of Texas excavated in Amis tad (Diablo) and McGee 
Bend Reservoirs and surveyed Toledo Bend, Columbus Bend, and 
Livingstone. Work continued at John Day Reservoir by the Uni- 
versity of Oregon, and at Walter F. George Reservoir by the Univer- 
sities of Georgia and Alabama. 

Natural History 

Secretary Udall secured the assistance of the National Academy of 
Sciences in planning and further broadening the National Park 
Service's proposed comprehensive research program. A new com- 
prehensive natural history research program for the national parks — 
endorsed by the Secretary's Advisory Board on National Parks, 
Historic Sites, Buildings, and Monuments — was launched, under which 
the Service considers research as a comprehensive system-oriented 
program rather than a piecemeal, problem-oriented series of projects. 
Since knowledge obtained through research is equally important to 
protection, development, park use, wildlife management, and inter- 
pretation, the new program will include periodic reappraisals of 
ecological conditions to determine whether changes are needed in 
management practices, to identify and correct ecological damage 
before it can reach an irreversible stage, and to ascertain the need for 
additional specific research. 

To assist in carrying our these objectives, the Academy, in coopera- 
tion with the Department of the Interior, selected an advisory com- 
mittee of the country's leading scientists. 

The biological research program produced two outstanding books: 
"A Naturalist in Alaska" and "The Bighorn of Death Valley." The 



94 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

latter publication is a revival of the National Park Service Fauna 
Series on natural history research. 

Outstanding progress was made in research on the interrelationships 
of wolf, beaver, and moose at Isle Royale. Cooperative research in 
the Yellowstone Lake fisheries and marine research in the Virgin 
Islands were completed. 

An analysis of water-supply needs for preserving the ecology of 
Everglades National Park was undertaken by the University of 
Miami, which also continued its research into the dependence of com- 
mercial fish populations on park waters. Another research project 
showed that tree invasions of meadows on the floor of Yosemite Valley 
are natural, unlike forest invasions at higher altitudes which other 
research has shown to be caused by human interference. 

Progress continued on studies of the survival and natural propaga- 
tion requirements of the Giant Sequoia and on the ecological require- 
ments of the rare Kaibab squirrel in Grand Canyon. In Grand 
Teton and Yellowstone, in cooperation with the Montana Cooperative 
Wildlife Research Unit, transistorized radio transmission sets were 
attached by collars to grizzly bears to trace their activities. 

Extensive geological research was accomplished in the national 
parks. Studies of hydrothermal features and phenomena in Yellow- 
stone, which were stepped up following the Hebgen Earthquake of 
1959, were continued in cooperation with the Department's Geological 
Survey. 

Excellent progress was made on continuing or recurring projects 
including glacial studies in Glacier, Mount Rainier, Olympic and 
Sequoia and Kings Canyon; volcanological investigations in Hawaii 
volcanoes; and studies of geology and ecology at Great Sand Dunes. 

The Department has approved a program of identification, evalua- 
tion, selection and registration of nationally significant geologic and 
ecologic sites. 

Ruins Stabilization 

Ruins stabilization crews from the Southwest Archeological Center 
worked in eight sites. The Wetherill Mesa project did stabilization 
in conjunction with excavation. Other stabilization at Mesa Verde 
included the spectacular pinning of a free-standing arch to the cliff 
above Spruce Tree House, and the digging of a 300-foot tunnel under 
Cliff Palace to drain excessive moisture. 

Historic Sites, Buildings, and Landmarks 

Substantial progress was made in the National Survey of Historic 
Sites and Buildings, which completed the following studies: " Political 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 95 




A National Park Service archeologist views a mass display of prehistoric 
Indian pottery recovered from the Wetherill Mesa excavations at Mesa Verde 
National Park. Study and analysis of these artifacts will shed new light on 
the life of Indians who made them. 

and Military Affairs, 1830-1860", " Transportation and Communica- 
tion", and "Dutch and Swedish Exploration and Settlement." To 
date, 23 studies have been completed, leaving 17 to be done. Of 
these, nine are underway. A volume entitled "Road to Revolution: 
Virginia's Rebels from Bacon to Jefferson, 1676-1776" was published. 
By the end of the fiscal year, 311 sites were classified as possessing 
exceptional value and eligible for registered national historic land- 
mark status. Under the registry, 179 certificates and 77 bronze 
plaques have been issued. The landmark program has been enthusi- 
astically received by the public, with formal ceremonies being held in 
connection with the majority of certificate and plaque presentations. 
In a number of cases, such as Graham Cave in Missouri and Fort 
Robinson, Nebr., landmark status has expedited or encouraged acqui- 
sition of sites by States or preservation organizations for public use. 
This is one of the purposes of the registry. 

Visitor Use 

The National Park Service is emphasizing the need to protect park 
values rather than relying only on the rigid enforcement of laws. 



96 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




Civil War reenactments and exhibits were part of the interpretive work in the 
Civil War areas of the Park Service during the first year of the Civil War 
centennial observances. The first reenactment took place at Manassas 
National Battlefield Park, Va., on July 21, 1961. 



This emphasis contributes to visitor enjoyment and accomplishes the 
protective function in a manner that creates a "park atmosphere." 
No one likes to go to an overregulated park. However, protection 
against vandalism and other violations which damage the parks for 
future users is always necessary. 

The numerous facets of ranger activity assignments require special- 
ized emphasis on such subjects as visitor protection, forest and 
structural fire control, safety of park visitors and park employees, 
search-and-rescue techniques, wildlife management, law enforcement, 
and mountaineering. 

Training 

Training of ranger services and supporting personnel at all levels 
in the skills of park and visitor protection, wildlife management, and 
emergency operations were expanded and involved more than 2,000 
individuals. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



97 




New visitor centers were constructed in nine National Park Service areas. 
One of these was dedicated at Homestead National Monument, Nebr., on 
June 10, 1962. 

The training center at Yosemite provides two 3-month courses 
each year for newly appointed uniformed employees. The curriculum 
includes Service history, policies, objectives, organization, and field 
operations. Initiated in 1957, it has graduated 254. In 1963, the 
training center will move to a special facility now under construction 
at Grand Canyon. 



Cooperation 

Cooperation with Federal and other organizations has been ex- 
panded in relation to park use. Primarily concerned were activities 
relating to water recreation, law enforcement, regulations, moun- 
taineering, winter use, camping, conservation and preservation of 
resources. Two park rangers toured seven Europlan countries as 
part of a team in promoting the " Visit USA" program. Millions of 
Europeans learned something of the significance of the National 
Park System and were invited to enjoy with the people of the United 
States these areas of national and international interest. 

Ranger services in cooperation with other Federal bureaus organ- 
ized, coordinated, and conducted a pilot field program for 10 African 
college students. These students, potential leaders of new African 
nations, were acquainted with the principles of resource conservation 
and management as practiced by the Department. 



98 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




The National Park System preserves outstanding scenic, scientific, and his- 
toric areas of the Nation ^for the present and future generations." Olympic 
National Park's Delabarre Glacier, above, is an outstanding example of 
preservation of a scenic area. 



Concessions Activities 

Concessioners in several areas invested substantial amounts in 
expanding and improving their overnight accommodations and 
rehabilitating existing facilities. The most important improvements 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 99 

were made by the concessioners as follows: South Rim of Grand 
Canyon, $372,000; Sequoia and Kings Canyon, $101,000; Shenandoah, 
$144,000; and Yosemite, $351,000. Projects by the concessioners are 
either under way or being planned in Big Bend, Everglades, Mammoth 
Cave, and Olympic National Parks, on the Blue Ridge Parkway, and 
in Lake Mead National Recreation Area. 

The District of Columbia Stadium, on lands administered by the 
National Park Service, was dedicated and placed in use during the 
year. The stadium is managed by the District of Columbia Armory 
Board under contract with the Department of the Interior. 

Concession facilities at Cape Hatteras, which were demolished by 
Atlantic tidal storms, have been reconstructed and restored to 
service. 

National Park Concessions, Inc., was granted a new 20-year con- 
tract for continued operations in Mammoth Cave, Big Bend, Isle 
Royale, and Olympic National Parks, and the Blue Ridge Parkway. 
Under the terms of this contract, the company will invest $3 million 
in new and improved facilities at these areas. In addition, contracts 
were entered into with concessioners at Fort Sumter, Glacier, and 
Lake Mead. Three prospectuses were issued inviting offers in con- 
nection with concessions at Fort Jefferson National Monument, and 
Hot Springs and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks. 

Operations and Maintenance 

New maintenance techniques have been employed. A new type 
rotary snowplow at Yellowstone, in its first year of operation, gave a 
highly satisfactory performance. New mobile highway lane stripers 
in areas with highspeed roadways, have reduced costs and discomfort. 
Hazardous trees are being removed in public areas in Yosemite, Ban- 
delier, Sequoia, and park areas in our Nation's Capital. By using 
up-to-date research and management techniques, costs are reduced 
and the esthetic enjoyment of the visitor is increased. 

To accommodate the campers, hikers, and wilderness enthusiasts, 
a back-country cleanup program is underway at Sequoia, and lake- 
shore cleanup is progressing nicely at Coulee Dam. 

Safety 

Calendar year 1961 was one of the most successful on record both 
in accident reduction and program effort. Two outstanding accom- 
plishments were: First, the great reduction in accidental deaths to 
National Park Service, concessioner and contractor personnel working 
in the parks. The past average of 13 workers (including 3 Service 
employees) killed by accidents on the job each year was reduced to a 



100 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




Picnicking and camping are pleasant interludes for travelers on parkways 
administered by the Park Service. Natchez Trace Parkway, Tenn.-Ala.- 
Miss., contains 450 miles of roads and offers many picnicking and camping 
areas. 



total of 3 fatal accidents in 1962, 2 of these being contractor employees 
and 1 a Service employee. Prior to the one fatal accident, the Service 
had compiled a record of 22 consecutive months without a fatal 
accident to a Service employee. Second, the direct dollar loss or 
cost to the Service from accidents was reduced $283,000, or ap- 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 101 

proximately a 61 -percent improvement as compared to the annual 
average loss total of previous years. 

Park and Recreation Planning 

The National Park Service's park-planning program is designed to 
expand the National Park system by selecting for preservation — 
while still available — those outstanding scenic, scientific, and historic 
areas of the Nation which are of national significance so that future 
park needs may be fulfilled. Although the Department's Bureau of 
Outdoor Recreation is taking over the principal recreation planning 
for the Nation, the National Park Service still requires its own plan- 
ning operation for areas which it administers or plans to administer. 

This program made significant progress during the year. Field 
investigations of approximately 60 areas throughout the country — 
which had been suggested for possible national park, national his- 
toric site, or national recreation area status — were conducted during 
the year. Comprehensive planning studies — such as specific area 
studies, economic studies, or land-use studies — were made of more 
than 20 areas to determine their national significance and their suit- 
ability and feasibility for inclusion in the National Park System. 
Among these were Florissent Fossil Beds, Colo.; Poverty Point, La.; 
Saint-Gaudens, N.H.; Big Horn Canyon, Mont.-Wyo. ; Pecos, N. 
Mex. ; and Baltimore, & Ohio Railroad Museum, Maryland. 

Illustrated brochures — printed with private donations — were issued 
this year to describe the proposed Canyonlands National Park, 
Utah; Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wis.; Prairie National Park 
Kans. ; and Sleeping Bear National Seashore, Mich. 

The Department is supporting legislation to authorize the estab- 
lishment of the following areas: Chesapeake & Ohio Canal National 
Historical Park, Md.; Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz.; 
Mount Vernon-Woodlawn Extension, George Washington Memorial 
Parkway, Va, ; Great Falls Park (part of National Capital Parks Sys- 
tem), Va. ; and Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site, Ariz. 
The Department also endorsed a study of a proposed Allegheny Park- 
way which would extend from Hagerstown, Md. to Cumberland Gap 
National Historical Park. In addition to the above-named areas, 
legislation was introduced in the 87th Congress to authorize the es- 
tablishment of the following areas: Boston National Historic Sites, 
Mass.; Fort Larned National Historic Site, Kans.; Golden Spike 
National Monument, Utah; Oregon Dunes National Seashore Recre- 
ation Area, Oreg. ; Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Mich. ; Tocks 
Island National Recreation Area, Pa.-N. J.; Valle Grande National 
Park, N. Mex.; and Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, Calif. 



102 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




Buck Island Reef National Monument near St. Croix, V.I., was one of the 
three new areas added to the National Park System during fiscal 1962. 
This area saves delicate coral formations and marine life from dangers of 
commercial fishing, spear fishing, and shell and coral collecting activities. 



Areas Authorized or Established 

Three new areas were established and six areas authorized for 
addition to the National Park System during the year. 

A unique area, the City of Refuge National Historical Park in 
Hawaii, was established on July 1, 1961, to commemorate the sacred 
grounds where — until 1819 — the vanquished Hawaiian warriors, 
the oppressed, and the taboo breakers could find protection and a 
haven. 

One of the finest marine gardens in the Caribbean is now protected 
in the Buck Island Reef National Monument, near St. Croix, V.I., 
which was established by Presidential proclamation on December 28, 
1961. 

On August 7, 1961, Congress authorized the establishment of Cape 
Cod National Seashore. This act was a landmark in park legislation 
since it authorized $16 million for land acquisition — the first time 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 103 

Congress has authorized the appropriation of funds to acquire lands 
initially for a major scenic area of the National Park System. 

Five new historical areas were authorized by Congress this year. 
Fort Davis National Historic Site in Texas, the site of a famous 
frontier fort, was authorized on September 8, 1961. The Fort Smith 
National Historic Site in Arkansas, authorized by the act of Sep- 
tember 13, 1961, will commemorate the two successive forts located 
an this site to maintain peace among the several Indian tribes of 
this region from 1817 to 1871. 

Piscataway Park, planned to be a part of the National Capital 
Park System, will preserve the Maryland shoreline of the Potomac 
River which contains the historic vista and scenic environs of Mount 
Vernon, the George Washington Memorial Parkway and Fort 
Washington. This area was authorized for acquisition by the act 
)f October 4, 1961. 

Another area honoring Abraham Lincoln, the Lincoln Boyhood 
National Memorial in Indiana, was authorized on February 19, 1962. 
Also, Alexander Hamilton will be honored by the preservation of his 
tiome in New York City. Authorized by the act of April 27, 1962, 
Dhis building will be moved to the campus of the City College of 
New York and be designated Hamilton Grange National Memorial. 
Each of these five areas will be officially established when the Federal 
Government has acquired the required lands. 

Boundary Adjustments 

Legislation has been enacted during this year which authorized 
additions of lands at Cumberland Gap National Historical Park, 
Fort Raleigh National Historic Site, and Lassen Volcanic National 
Park; additions and deletions at Wupatki National Monument; and 
both boundary revisions and name changes for Fort Necessity and 
Tupelo National Battlefields. 

By Presidential proclamation, 14,720 acres of public lands were 
added to Saguaro National Monument, and 375 acres were added to 
Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument. 

Legislation also authorized the disestablishment of the Ackia 
Battleground and Meriwether Lewis National Monuments and their 
inclusion in the Natchez Trace Parkway. These areas are now known 
as the Chickasaw and the Meriwether Lewis units of the parkway. 

Planning for Nonurban Parks and Recreation Areas 

A 5-year survey was completed on existing and potential parks 
and related types of recreation areas to meet future needs. The 
survey consisted of a State-by-State investigation, conducted in 



104 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOB 

cooperation with the States, and identified about 4,800 existing anc 
2,800 potential parks and recreation areas which could help to meet 
present and future outdoor recreation needs. Such cooperative 
nationwide planning will hereafter be the responsibility of the 
Department's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. 

Economic Research 

Economic research during the year focused on measurement of the 
impact of proposed parks on the basic economic structure of an area 
and on the comparative effects on the economy and on the genera] 
welfare if natural resources are used for recreation development oi 
for alternative uses. 

A study was made by the University of Utah for the Service tc 
determine the economic impact which might be expected to result 
from the establishment of the proposed Canyonlands National 
Park and to investigate the probable future growth of visits to the 
existing concentration of parks and monuments located within the 
region of the proposed park. A study was completed also on the 
economic feasibility of the proposed Sleeping Bear National Seashore 

A study of the recreation resources of northeastern Vermont was 
initiated to determine the economic feasibility of developing the 
recreation potential of that area. A prospectus for the study was 
developed and a contract negotiated with the University of Vermont 

Urban Open Space 

The Service assisted in the preparation of a joint report by the 
Department of the Interior and the Housing and Home Finance 
Agency on a long-range program and policy for open space and orderly 
development in urban areas. The Service also maintained liaisor 
with the Housing and Home Finance Agency on the program ol 
grants to States and local public bodies for the acquisition of open- 
space land in urban areas, established under the Housing Act of 1961 

Special Studies 

A 3-year study of reservoir recreation potentialities in the Potomac 
River basin was completed, with funds provided by the Corps oi 
Engineers. Work was undertaken, also at the request of the Corps 
of Engineers, on a 3-year study of the park and recreation area po- 
tential of proposed reservoirs in the Ohio River basin. 

A report on Puerto Rico's recreation resources was completed undei 
contract. Fieldwork was completed on a seashore and park study o1 
Hawaii. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



105 



Following the disastrous storm of March 6 and 7, 1962, along the 
Atlantic coast, which caused severe damage along the barrier beaches 
of six States, the Service assisted in the organization of a task force of 
Federal and State agencies to make an aerial reconnaissance of the 
shorelines of the six States and published a report, "Seashore Preserva- 
tion and Recreation Opportunities and Storm Damage." The report 
explored the question of dedication of shoreline portions of the barrier 
beaches to public use. 

Cooperation With the States 

Advisory assistance was given in 48 States on 771 occasions, an 
increase of 23 percent over 1961. Of special interest is the increase in 
the number of requests received for assistance in interpretive planning 
and requests from Indian tribes for planning recreation developments 
on their lands. In the future, such activities will also be continued by 
the Department's Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. 




Federal and State agencies cooperated in making a storm damage survey 
along the Atlantic coast following the disastrous storm of March 6 and 7, 
1962. Assateague Island, Md., above, was one of the areas where damage 
to the dunes and barriers was severe. Suggestions were advanced for making 
the island a public recreational area. 



106 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

"State Park Statistics — 1961" shows substantial increases in 
acquisition, development, and use of State parks. Tabulations show 
(1) attendance exceeding 273 million, including 23 million overnight 
visitors; (2) expenditure of $61 million for operation and maintenance, 
$13 million for land acquisition, and $36 million for improvements; 
(3) revenue from operations of $23 million; and (4) 7,984 year-round 
and 10,142 seasonal personnel. Keported also was a total of 2,792 
areas embracing almost 6 million acres. 

Real Property Disposal 

Recommendations were furnished to General Services Administra- 
tion on 28 applications submitted by the States and their political 
subdivisions to acquire Federal surplus real properties for public park, 
recreation, and historic monument purposes. The Service has carried 
compliance responsibility on a total of 232 properties embracing 30,395 
acres. Recommendations also were furnished to the Department's 
Bureau of Land Management on 78 applications to acquire public- 
domain lands for similar purposes. 

Reservoir Planning and Management 

Two important new policies on acquisition of lands and provision of 
recreation facilities on reservoir projects — one issued by the Secretary 
of the Interior relating to reservoirs constructed by the Department's 
Bureau of Reclamation and the other issued jointly by the Secretaries 
of the Interior and Army relating to both Reclamation and Corps of 
Engineers projects. These policies provide for all planning reports to 
include recommendations for Federal acquisition of all lands needed 
in the foreseeable future for recreation purposes and the provision of 
basic recreation facilities required for current needs. 

Also of outstanding significance is the new statement " Policies, 
Standards, and Procedures in the Formulation, Evaluation, and Re- 
view of Plans for Use and Development of Water and Related Land 
Resources/ ' approved by the President on the recommendations of 
the Secretaries of the Interior, Army, Agriculture, and Health, Edu- 
cation, and Welfare. This provides that recreation will be given 
equivalent consideration as a project purpose on all Federal multi- 
purpose water resources projects. 

During the year, 90 recreation reports were prepared for the Bureau 
of Reclamation and 38 for the Corps of Engineers and arrangements 
were concluded with State and local agencies to manage recreation 
developments on 7 Reclamation reservoirs. Twenty-one applications 
for Federal Power Commission permits and licenses were received and 
recommendations provided to the Office of the Project Review 
Coordinator. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 107 

The Service made its experienced park and recreation specialists 
available to provide advisory and planning assistance to States and 
their political subdivisions taking advantage of the Area Redevelop- 
ment Administration program which was authorized by an act of 
Congress approved May 1, 1961. 

Design and Construction 

The construction program was the most intensive of any previous 
year in the National Park Service history. There were 775 new 
construction projects programed at approximately $63,166,500, 
including projects for recreational facilities in the Upper Colorado 
River Basin Reservoir areas, not including exhibits, interpretive 
devices, rehabilitation projects, and advanced planning which in 
themselves amounted to $2 million. 

The new projects, plus work carried over from the previous year, 
came to 1,667 projects in the active construction program totaling 
$134,677,747. As of May 1962 these totals, through further program 
adjustments, had increased to 1,740 projects amounting to $135,007,- 
429. Of all projects, 26 percent were completed and an additional 
58 percent were under construction. Only 16 percent were not 
under construction. To augment professional services provided by 
the field design and construction offices, 22 contracts for professional 
architectural and engineering services for approximately $144,150 
were awarded. Projects involved were estimated to cost approxi- 
mately $7 million. 

Architecture 

The Service awarded its biggest contract for the ' 'Gateway Arch," 
a 630-foot stainless steel arch which will rise on the St. Louis water- 
front at Jefferson National Expansion Memorial. It will be a 
dominant feature of downtown St. Louis and is scheduled for comple- 
tion in 1964, the 200th anniversary of St. Louis. 

The stately visitor center at Parachute Key, Everglades National 
Park, an example of dignified Federal architecture, was completed 
prior to the heavy upsurge of winter visitor use. The Rock Creek 
Park Nature Center in Washington, D.C., filled a long-felt need and 
is enjoyed by thousands of visitors in the Nation's Capital. 

An unusual architectural design concept, based on the historical 
precedent of the octagonal blockhouse of Revolutionary and post- 
Revolutionary times, resulted in the pleasant visitor center at Saratoga 
National Military Park. 

The Gettysburg Cyclorama and Visitor Center, featuring the 
colossal painting of the battle by Pierre Philapoteaux, also provides 



108 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

a rostrum for important speakers and an auditorium and gathering 
ground for several thousand people, in honor of Lincoln's immortal 
Gettysburg Address. 

The faithful restoration of Congress Hall which shows with exacti- 
tude the conditions, architecture and decor under which the First 
Continental Congress met adjacent to Independence Hall in Phila- 
delphia is a worthy achievement in the historic buildings program. 

Engineering 

The Division of Engineering supervised 1,134 projects. A total 
of 485 minor roads and trails projects were programed in 122 areas 
providing improvement of visitor facilities and extension and enlarge- 
ment of campground and picnic areas. These, plus projects providing 
public access to newly acquired areas, totaled $22,756,595. 

A significant accomplishment was the start of a 20-mile jeep trail 
at Katmai in Alaska, from Brooks River Camp through a magnificent 
wilderness to overlook the Valley of 10,000 Smokes. Heavy equip- 
ment and supplies were moved to King Salmon by air across the frozen 
Naknek River to Brooks River Camp. Twenty-three visitor facility 
projects were constructed on the Blue Ridge Parkway. Reconstruc- 
tion of facilities damaged by the hurricane at Cape Hatteras and 
Everglades and reconstruction of roads and trails damaged during 
the 1961 earthquake at Yellowstone were major projects. 

Twenty-seven projects were completed to provide commercial 
power and telephone service including lighting at Mammoth Cave and 
Carlsbad Caverns and powerlines at Blue Ridge Parkway, Fort 
Pulaski, Lake Mead, and Olympic. Five additional radio systems 
were completed, bringing the total of leased commercial systems to 36. 
Most notable were the Blue Ridge and Natchez Trace Parkways 
systems. The Natchez Trace system employs 10 frequencies and 
permits instant and constant contact throughout the 450 miles of the 
Parkway. Special audiovisual equipment designed to provide auto- 
matic slide-sound programs was installed in nine park auditoriums and 
three amphitheaters. Electric maps coordinated with narrated des- 
criptions illustrate troop movements at Horseshoe Bend, Fredericks- 
burg, and Spotsylvania. 

General utilities and miscellaneous structures such as marinas, 
docks, and interpretive facilities were expanded. Water and sewer 
facilities were constructed in 28 States, the District of Columbia, 
Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands. Three hundred and fifty-nine 
projects such as signs, picnic and camping facilities, and campfire 
circles were constructed in 33 States. One hundred and three 
camping areas were developed in 51 areas to bring the total sites in 
the system to nearly 22,000. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 109 

Landscape Architecture 

Greatest emphasis was placed on programs providing additional 
miles for continuous travel on the national parkways, improved visitor 
facilities, the study of future parkways, and significant major park 
road development across the Nation. For parkway programs, a total 
contract authorization for $16 million was distributed among the Blue 
Ridge, Colonial, Foothills, George Washington Memorial, Natchez 
Trace, and Suitland Parkways. On June 30 there were 37 major 
contracts totaling approximately $26,300,000 in process under the 
Bureau of Public Roads major roads program. These include 52 
miles of final paving, 69 miles of grading and base course work, 36 
bridges and grade separation structures, 9 tunnels, and other road- 
work. Outstanding major park road projects completed included 
developments in the East and Far West at a cost of $8.5 million. 

Master Plan Coordination 

A Division of Master Plan Coordination provides, for the first time, 
central coordination and direction to the Service-wide program of 
master plan preparation and consists of two major branches, master 
plan narratives and master plan drawings. 

Master plans for the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir areas 
such as Crawford, Flaming Gorge, Glen Canyon, Navajo, Paonia, and 
Steinaker have been prepared. Construction in some of these areas 
has already been undertaken or scheduled. 

Lands 

Recognizing the pressing National Park System land requirements 
for conservation, development, and opening of additional areas to the 
visiting public and to establish vital new parks, the Congress appro- 
priated a total of $7,600,000 for the purchase of lands for fiscal 1962. 
The 22,950,000 acres of land and water comprising the areas of the 
National Park System is less than 1 percent of the total area of the 
United States. They include non-Federal lands totaling 433,000 
acres. Although less than 2 percent of the gross acreage, these in- 
holdings constitute a serious administrative handicap out of all pro- 
portion relative to the 22,517,000 acres of Federal lands now in the 
National Park System. Purchase of 14,000 acres in both newly 
authorized areas and in established areas, including Civil War sites, 
is in process. 



110 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

The newly authorized areas are Bent's Old Fort National Historic 
Site, Colo., and Minute Man National Historical Park and Cape Cod 
National Seashore, both in Massachusetts. Negotiations are pro- 
gressing in these three areas for the purchase of properties. 

Land-purchase programs are active in 21 established areas, includ- 
ing five Civil War sites, with realty acquisitions varying in acreage 
and description from a 0.081-acre extensively improved historical 
parcel of city land to a 1,200-acre tract of scenic semiarid grazing land. 
Other scheduled purchases are homesite subdivisions in stands of 
beautiful trees, rights-of-way for road construction, sites for visitor 
centers, mining claims, structures of historical and architectural 
significance, blighted city property which is a fire hazard threat to 
nearby historical buildings, sites of Civil War events and lands to 
enhance vistas. — 

Various public agencies, private organizations, and individuals dur- 
ing the year have donated to the United States real property within 
nine areas of the system for the use of all the people of the United 
States. Land exchanges in six areas brought significant properties 
into Federal ownership. 

Other Federal bureaus transferred scenic and important lands to 
the custody and jurisdiction of the National Park Service in six of 
its areas. 

Water Rights 

A major challenge has developed in the struggle to preserve the 
ecology of Everglades National Park as an asset in the growth ol 
southern Florida. Approximately 90 percent of its fresh water re- 
sources originate at precipitation on the park and 10 percent on the 
adjacent Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District. That 
10 percent, with its seasonal and annual variation in quantity, is 
essential to maintain a balanced subtropical ecology on the seasonally 
inundated land area; and in the brackish water of its bays and estu- 
aries, which are a vital element in the life cycle of the Tortugas shrimp 
and other sports and commercial fish on which established industries 
have grown throughout the State. It is also needed for the increas- 
ing population and other industries of metropolitan Dade County. 
The problem is to determine the portion of the 10 percent which may 
be spared for the other municipal and industrial purposes without 
jeopardizing the ecology, and to cooperate in planning the centra] 
and southern Florida flood control project throughout the Greatei 
Everglades drainage including the Kissimmee River to provide flood 
control, drainage, and water storage and allocation for all purposes, 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



111 



Park Attendance 



Fiscal year 1962 brought 82,300,000 visits to the national parks and 
related areas; an increase of 8.6 percent over fiscal year 1961. Early 
in the year, total travel moved firmly across the long-run 1947-62 
normal growth curve, thus indicating a trend toward a heavier- than- 
normal public use of the parks throughout calendar year 1962 and 
probably into 1963, after which a relative and modest softening of 
this curve may reasonably be expected to occur. 




■^S^^'^JBf^ 



Over 82,300,000 visits were recorded in areas of the National Park System 
during fiscal 1962, for an 8.6-percent increase over the previous year. Old 
Faithful, above, continues to be a main attraction at Yellowstone National 
Park. 



Turning to calendar year comparison, 1961 growth in total visits 
Dver 1960 was not uniform throughout the Nation. Parks in South- 
sastern United States rose 12 percent; the Pacific coast and the 
National Capital area increased 9 percent; Northeast was up 4 percent; 
while travel to parks in the Rocky Mountains, the Plains, and the 
Southwest produced changes of less than 1 percent. 

Camping in the national parks was up 4.4 percent from 1960 with 
a total of 5,051,000 camper days. None of the increase occurred in 
tent camping — all of it was in trailer camping which increased 17 
percent — so as to amount to almost 30 percent of all camping in the 
parks. The expansion of camping facilities reduced the total propor- 



112 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

tion of public camping in irregular or overcapacity conditions to 11 
percent from the 14 percent recorded in 1960. 

Budget and Finance 

Continued improvement in the Service's capacity and capability 
for meeting its responsibilities was realized through 1962 fiscal year 
appropriation increases. In addition to increases in its regular 
appropriations, funds were provided the Service in the Department's 
Bureau of Reclamation's appropriation to initiate construction of 
recreation facilities in the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir 
area sites as authorized by the Colorado River Storage Project Act. 
The following is a comparision of the 1962 appropriations with those 
for 1961: 



Appropriation item 


1961 
fiscal year 


1962 
fiscal year 


Increase 


Service appropriations: 


$20, 509, 000 

15,800,000 

1,581,000 

21,528,000 

30,000,000 


$22, 586, 500 

18, 269, 000 

1, 581, 000 

36, 726, 000 

30,000,000 


$2, 077, 500 


Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facilities 


2,469,000 


Construction 


15, 198, 000 


Construction (liquidation of contract authorization) 








Total cash appropriations 


89,418,000 
4.000,000 


109, 162, 500 
4,000,000 


19, 744, 500 


Construction (amount by which roads and trails and parkways 
contract authorization exceeded cash appropriation) 








Total new obligational authority Service appropriations. 
Appropriation transfers from other agencies 


93, 418, 000 
5, 342, 000 


113, 162, 500 
7,850,400 


19, 744, 500 
2, 508, 400 






Grand total, new obligational authority 


98, 760, 000 


121, 012, 900 


22, 252, 900 







Of the total increases reflected in the foregoing, $4,894,000 was for 
continuation of construction at Jefferson National Expansion Memo- 
rial, $1 million to commence a program for construction of facilities 
in the New York City Shrines areas, $2,270,500 for construction of 
recreation facilities in the Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir 
area sites, $2,250,000 for commencement of land acquisitions for the 
newly authorized Cape Cod National Seashore, $1 million to continue 
the land acquisition program for Minute Man National Historical 
Park, and $1,875,000 for acquisition of lands in other park areas. 
The remainder, $8,963,400, was for strengthening the various Service 
programs. 

A comprehensive review of the Service's visitor fee system was 
commenced during the fiscal year. With the provision of additional 
visitor facilities and additional uniformed personnel, there are a 
number of areas not presently producing any significant amounts of 
revenues where the charging of visitor fees is now warranted and in 
some instances changes should be made in the fees currently author- 
ized. Consideration is also being given to any different types of fees 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE + 113 

that might be charged to make the system more equitable or to insure 
realization of the full revenue potential within governing policy and 
principles. The study was still in progress at the close of the fiscal 
year. It will be continued and completed in the light of developments 
with respect to the pending land conservation fund legislation, H.R. 
11173 andS. 3118. 

NATIONAL CAPITAL PARKS 

Legislation was passed in the Congress and signed by the President 
during the year that will provide for the preservation of certain lands 
on Piscataway Creek in Prince Georges and Charles Counties, Md., 
known as the Mockley Point or Moyoane Park area on the opposite 
side of the Potomac River from Mount Vernon. The Department is 
authorized to acquire the land for park purposes — approximately 
2,600 acres for scenic easements and 1,186 acres by outright acquisi- 
tion. Plans are being made for early acquisition of the properties, 
about half of which will be donated. Thus, the use of this scenic and 
historic area by commercial developments or, as suggested, as a site 
for a sewer plant, would be averted. 

Visitor Center 

A new visitor center to serve the ever-increasing number of visitors 
to the Nation's Capital — on Hains Point overlooking the Anacostia 
and Potomac Rivers — was opened to the public on March 16 as a 
pilot project. By the end of the fiscal year 48,087 schoolchildren 
and other visitors had been "oriented" at the center by means of 
exhibits, maps, photographs, movies, and slides. 

Cultural Developments 

The National Capital Planning Commission and the Fine Arts 
Commission approved a site on Daingerfield Island, George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway, for the world's largest planetarium — 
proposed to be erected with funds to be raised by the Washington 
Planetarium and Space Center. This brings closer to reality an 
outstanding addition to the cultural development of the Nation's 
Capital. 

The Committee appointed by the President to raise funds for the 
National Cultural Center — planned for a site on the Potomac River 
upstream from the Lincoln Memorial — is making strides toward a 
fulfillment of this long-nourished dream for a facility to meet the 
need of Washington residents by providing a suitable "home" for 
cultural programs and exhibits. 



114 + ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Also proposed for construction in the District of Columbia is a 
$10 million aquarium. One site suggested was East Potomac Park. 
Legislation authorizing the aquarium has passed the House. The 
Interior Department has endorsed the bill. 

Memorials 

Attendance at the memorials has made a new record during the 
past year. A comparison of attendance for calendar years 1960 and 
1961 at the six most prominent memorials and the White House is 
given below: 

Lincoln Memorial 

Washington Monument 

Jefferson Memorial 

Custis-Lee Mansion 

Lincoln Museum 

House Where Lincoln Died 

White House 



Glover-Archbold Park 

Expressway encroachment upon the natural beauty of this park 
area, donated to the National Park Service by the Glover and Archbold 
families, has been vigorously opposed by the Department of the Inte- 
rior and the National Park Service. Legislation to prevent this 
development has been introduced in Congress and passed by the 
Senate. 

■ft U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963 O - 678432 



1960 


1961 


2, 488, 174 


2, 889, 982 


1, 392, 891 


1, 592, 279 


926, 920 


811, 547 


348, 166 


321, 919 


221, 877 


250, 674 


135, 562 


154, 578 


809, 639 


1, 321, 552 


6, 323, 229 


7,342,531 



NITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR 

Stewart L. Udall, Secretary 




Annual 
Report 



1963 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



Conrad L. Wirth, Direc 



J1IWVER5ITY0F6E0WMI 

JUN 12 1964 

Libraries 




National 
Park Service 



Conrad L. Wirth, Director 



On August 22, 1962, the one billionth visit to the national parks 
was recorded since the first visit in 1904. At the current pace, the 
second billionth will be reached in 11 years. 

The National Park System affords Americans opportunities to 
enjoy great scenic and inspirational areas of their country in a 
natural, unspoiled condition and the rare quality of the primitive 
wilderness that was America before it was touched by civilization. 
They may better comprehend the physical and spiritual links that 
bind America's past to its present and future and they may find 
release from the care and tension of the workaday world. 

The supply of outdoor recreational facilities and opportunities 
is proving inadequate in both number and distribution to meet the 
increasing demand. The Nation's burgeoning and mobile popu- 
lation will be hard put to find extensive areas of open space. But 
it will be the Federal, State, and local parks that will bear the bur- 
den : Several thousand recreation seekers cannot be satisfied in a 
park designed to accommodate several hundred. 

Secretary of the Interior Udall cautioned that "the least we can 
do . . . before our land patterns become inalterably fixed ... is 
to preserve the few remaining extensive areas of natural open 
space . . . now, while there's still time." 

The Service is providing more and better opportunities for Amer- 
icans to visit, understand, and fully enjoy their great natural, his- 
toric, and scientific heritage. While holding to the traditional 
concept of preserving wilderness values as completely as possible, 
the National Park Service, during fiscal 1963, made great strides 

95 



96 



ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 



in modernizing its services to the public. These improvements 
are evidenced in better access roads, more trails for hiking and 
horseback riding, more campgrounds, more and better visitor ac- 
commodations, and more modern and imaginative interpretive 
facilities. 

The National Park Service in fiscal 1963— 

. . . Welcomed a new high of 91,496,000 visitors to the Na- 
tional Park System and recorded 6,106,000 camp-use days — a 
startling 21-percent gain over fiscal 1962. 

. . . Saw three areas established as units of the park sys- 
tem : Petrified Forest National Park, Ariz. ; Fort Clatsop Na- 
tional Memorial, Oreg. ; and Bents Old Fort National Historic 
Site, Colo. The Service also welcomed the authorization of 
six areas including national seashores at Point Reyes in Cali- 
fornia and Padre Island, Tex. ; three national historic sites — 
Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace and Sagamore Hill, both in 




Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site, near La Junta, Colo., one of the three new areas 
established during fiscal year 1963, preserves the remains of one of the West's most 
significant fur-trading establishments. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



97 



New York, Fort Saint Marks, Fla., and the Frederick Douglass 
Home, a unit of the National Capital Parks. 

. . . Cooperated in important special studies of the North 
Cascades region in Washington State, the Coast Redwoods 
region in California, and a comprehensive park and recreation 
area study of Hawaii. In addition, the Service is also cooper- 
ating in a special Wild Rivers Study being conducted jointly 
by the Departments of Agriculture and Interior. 

. . . Saw the long-range requirements program, which 
began in 1956 with Mission 66, enter a new phase with the 
assignment of a task force to chart the future course of both 
the Service and the National Park System. 

. . . Received from Congress $13,622,000 to purchase pri- 
vately owned lands urgently required for recreation, conserva- 
tion, development, and construction purposes in 24 long-estab- 
lished areas and 7 newly authorized ones. 

. . . Accomplished a construction effort in which more than 
90 percent of all programed projects either had been completed 
or were being built. 




The new Visitor Center, Dinosaur National Monument, Utah-Colorado, one of the nine 
new visitor centers opened during the fiscal year, is an example of creative architecture 
making its appearance in the National Park Service. 



98 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

. . . Highlighted the release of the Secretary's Special 
Wildlife Advisory Board Report on March 4, 1963, whose wild- 
life management recommendations were subsequently ac- 
cepted and implemented in the program. 

. . . Opened or installed 9 new visitor centers and installed 
more than 150 exhibits. 

. . . Moved the Horace M. Albright Training Center to 
newly constructed facilities at Grand Canyon National Park. 

. . . Raised to 404 the total number of sites eligible for 
status in the Registry of National Historic Landmarks. 

. . . Increased attention to the equal opportunity program 
and to the employment of women in types of positions for 
which they are particularly suited, such as park guides and 
park interpreters. 

. . . Issued an unprecedented number of factual reports 
and publications to the general public. 

. . . Processed, through its Division of International Co- 
operation, more than 2,000 letters of inquiry from foreign 
countries. 

. . . Recorded more than 7 million visits to units adminis- 
tered by the National Capital Parks. 



PARK ATTENDANCE AT NEW HIGH 

National Parks registered a total of 91,496,000 visits. This rec- 
ord figure was an increase of 11.2 percent over fiscal 1962 — and 
more than doubled the volume of park visits of 11 years ago, and 
tripled the statistics of 15 years back. 

National Park Service statisticians forecast that the existing 
developed parks will experience 100 million visits during the Serv- 
ice's Silver Anniversary year, 1966. As new recreation areas and 
seashores are developed, a 1966 figure substantially greater than 
100 million may be confidently expected. 

The camp-use days — 6,106,000 during fiscal 1963 — were 21 per- 
cent above those recorded during the previous period. That camp- 
ing is no longer the nearly exclusive preserve of the family under 
a canvas tent on the ground emerged from a special survey made 
during 1962. It showed that of every 100 camping parties, 
slightly more than 50 use this equipment. Nineteen camped in 
house-trailers, seven in tents erected on trailers, six in camper- 
coaches, six in station wagons or specially equipped buses, three in 
tiny sleeping trailers, and eight utilized more unusual equipment — 
or none at all. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



99 




Becoming more popular is the use of house trailers as a means of camping. 
Park System areas provide for the camping families using house trailers. 



Nearly all 



Park concessioners and private in-holders operating commercial 
accommodations recorded 2,944,000 overnight stays, or 8.7 percent 
above fiscal 1962 — the largest relative increase in more than a 
decade. 



New Parks and National Seashores Authorized or Established 

Three new areas were established and six areas were authorized 
for addition to the National Park System during the year. 

Petrified Forest National Park, Ariz., became the Nation's 31st 
national park December 9, 1962, when Secretary Udall issued an 







One of the two new national seashores authorized by Congress during fiscal year 1963, 
Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif., will provide outdoor recreation for one of the 
most heavily populated and fastest growing regions in the Nation. 



order redesignating the Petrified Forest National Monument as a 
national park. A 1958 act had provided that this be done as soon 
as the non-Federal holdings, totaling 8,174 acres, were acquired by 
the Federal Government. 

Fort Clatsop National Memorial, Oreg., commemorating the 
Lewis and Clark Expedition to the Pacific coast, was established 
October 18, 1962. 

The site of a historic fur-trading enterprise located on the moun- 
tain route of the Santa Fe Trial in Colorado — Bents Old Fort — 
was established on March 15, 1963, as Bents Old Fort National 
Historic Site. 

Two national seashores were authorized by Congress in recogniz- 
ing the need to preserve additional portions of our rapidly vanish- 
ing seashore. They were Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif., 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 101 

authorized September 13, 1962, and Padre Island National Sea- 
shore, Tex., authorized September 28, 1962. 

Four historic sites were also authorized for inclusion in the Na- 
tional Park System. They are the Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace 
National Historic Site and Sagamore Hill National Historic Site, 
both authorized July 25, 1962, to preserve in Federal ownership 
these historically significant properties in New York State, which 
were associated with the life of President Theodore Roosevelt ; the 
Frederick Douglass Home, District of Columbia, authorized Sep- 
tember 5, 1962, as a unit of the National Capital Parks, to preserve 
the home of this noted Negro leader ; and Fort Saint Marks National 
Historic Site, Fla., authorized October 10, 1962, to protect the site 
where several successive forts were built, starting about 1679. 



CONSERVATION, INTERPRETATION, 
AND USE GAIN 

Park and visitor protection continued to receive the highest 
priorities in all areas of the National Park System. Conservation 
of the unique, natural, and primitive values, together with provi- 
sion for public recreational enjoyment of the esthetic and historic 
values by more than 90 million visitors, were enhanced through 
intensive planning, organization, and development. 

Wildlife Management 

Release of the Secretary's Special Wildlife Advisory Board Re- 
port, the subsequent acceptance of its recommendations, and im- 
plementation of activities highlighted the wildlife management 
program in the national parks. A review of current and future 
national park wildlife programs was prepared so that a stepped-up 
program of cooperative understanding, study, and management 
of migratory animals might be resolved through increased contacts 
with other conservation agencies. 

There has been a significant need to preserve park values through 
increased wildlife management. These included the establishment 
of wildlife control programs which, in fiscal 1963, involved relo- 
cation of 2,079 large mammals and the necessary reduction of 
4,992 animals. 

Cooperative fisheries studies continued and fish planting pro- 
grams were carried out in 13 areas. 



102 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Training Increases 

The Horace M. Albright Training Center (formerly the National 
Park Service Training Center) was relocated in new facilities at 
Grand Canyon National Park, Ariz. Nearly 300 members of the 
uniformed staff completed the concentrated 3-month orientation 
and indoctrination training program. 

Forest, Soil, and Water Problems Attacked 

During fiscal 1963, a record 609 fires burned 79,252 acres 
inside park areas and 115,088 acres in protection zones outside 



The Horace M. Albright Training Center was relocated in new facilities at Grand Canyon 
National Park. Ariz. 



afij^?*^ 



®m 



*11 : i§& 







NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 103 

Dark boundaries. Approximately 50 percent of these fires were 
nan caused. The Service spent $261,029 in fire-suppression activi- 
ties. To counter additional fire damage, the Service enjoyed the 
continuous and effective cooperation of other land-management 
igencies. An interdepartmental fire behavior school was held in 
California. 

Control continued against epidemic outbreaks of forest pests 
n developed and concentrated visitor-use areas. The program in- 
cluded protection of outstanding or rare plant species and plant 
communities. 

Soil and moisture conservation programs, undertaken to restore 
iepleted or previously misused land, vegetation, and water re- 
sources and to restore natural conditions, were conducted in 20 
parks. A conservation survey on 225,000 acres of depleted wild- 
ife range in Yellowstone National Park started. Cooperative ac- 
tivities with local soil and water conservation districts and other 
igencies increased. 

Mew Visitor Centers Opened 

Nine new visitor centers were opened : Antietam National Batt- 
lefield Site, Md.; Pea Ridge National Military Park, Ark.; 

hancellorsville Battlefield, Va. ; Lehman Caves National Monu- 
nent, Nev. ; Fort Clatsop National Memorial, Oreg. ; Petrified For- 
est National Park, Ariz. ; Christiansted National Historic Site, 
Virgin Islands ; Vanderbilt Mansion National Historic Site, N. Y. ; 
md Big Bend National Park, Tex. 

Exhibit Installations Added 

Park visitors find exhibits — both in the visitor centers and along 
:he roads and trials — help them understand and enjoy the parks. 
Durable, self-operating, accurate, and attractive exhibits afford 
in economical and effective aid to interpretation. During the year 
;he Service installed over 150 exhibits in the 9 new visitor centers, 
t added, updated, or rehabilitated nearly 100 exhibits in 15 estab- 
ished visitor centers. At year's end, exhibits were in production 
? or six more. The Service experimented successfully with new 
nethods of improving the design and durability of outdoor exhibits, 
n the process, over 50 new ones were installed in 8 parks. 

nterpretation Activities Gain Specimens 

The heart of good exhibits are the specimens they display. The 
Service's important collections of historic and scientific objects also 



104 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 







Park visitors find exhibits in the visitor centers and along the roads and trails help them 
to understand better and enjoy the parks. This unique outdoor exhibit at Badlands 
National Monument, S. Dak., is a glass-enclosed "fossils-in-place" display. 



pay dividends in the preservation and administration of the parks 
in return for the expert care they require. 

The Service continued to refine its collections by adding signifi- 
cant and necessary new material while disposing of specimens not 
useful to the parks. The outstanding accession was Benjamin 
Franklin's desk, purchased at auction for Independence National 
Historical Park with the aid of the Eastern National Park and 
Monument Association. 

The Service received numerous gifts of specimens for the Amer- 
ican Museum of Immigration, the Museum of Westward Expan- 
sion, and for other park museums across the country. 

Training Programs Developed 

Improvement of opportunities for visitors to understand and 
enjoy their national parks increased. Sixteen new naturalist posi- 
tions were filled during the year. Two new training programs for 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 105 

improving the quality and effectiveness of performance in interpre- 
tive programs were started. One was the opening of the Stephen 
T. Mather Interpretive Training and Research Center at Harpers 
Ferry, W. Va. ; the other was use of demonstrations and training 
sessions at campfire programs. Results will be evaluated as a pos- 
sible continuing training method. A committee was established 
to develop and evaluate new ideas and devices for interpretation. 

Concession Installations Improved 

New concession contracts were approved for Yosemite, Blue 
Ridge Parkway, and National Capital Region, in addition to Inde- 
pendence and Castillo de San Marcos. A major feature of the new 
concession contract at Yosemite was a $2 million construction com- 
mitment for new and improved visitor accommodations. Offers 
were invited for concessions at Flaming Gorge, Glen Canyon, Great 
Smoky Mountains, and Cape Hatteras. 

Important concessioner investments were made at Grand Can- 
yon (South Rim), $388,347; Lake Mead, $134,264; Petrified For- 
est, $116,038; Sequoia and Kings Canyon, $388,403; Shenandoah, 
$196,854; Grand Teton, $334,581; Independence, $207,269; Cas- 
tillo de San Marcos, $245,699; and Yosemite, $622,412. Addi- 
tional projects by concessioners were underway or were planned at 
Blue Ridge, Big Bend, Mammoth Cave, Olympic, and Glen Canyon. 

Pilot Project Used 

An integrated training program for first- and Second-line super- 
visors was developed and presented. Also, as a pilot project, stu- 
dents were hired from a 2-year technical school to evaluate educa- 
tion in fields of horticulture, construction, and engineering in terms 
of our needs and efficient manpower utilization. The Service 
believes that such graduates offer great potential to improve 
personnel. 

Sanitation Poses Problem 

As the number of visits increases throughout the National Park 
System, the problems of littering and sanitation removal and dis- 
posal costs increase. During the year, the Park Service, along with 
the Forest Service, published a litterbug poster for use in all na- 
tional parks and national forests. This seeks to develop a coop- 
erative attitude toward keeping such areas clean. A study was 








The National Geographic Society donated $50,000 for Wetherill Mesa research al 
Mesa Verde National Park, Colo. This is the Cliff Palace at Wetherill Mesa. 



started on disposal methods and practices to be used in national 
parks. 

Historical Interpretation Advances 

The Sound and Light programs, started in fiscal 1962 at Inde- 
pendence National Historical Park and Castillo de San Marcos 
National Monument, were in full operation and awaited complete 
evaluation of public acceptance. Proposals to extend such service 
to other areas were held in abeyance pending evaluation. 

National Survey of Historic Sites and Buildings Active 

Studies were completed in 6 basic themes of American history 
while 93 sites and structures were classified as having exceptional 
value and were approved as eligible for the Registry of National 
Historic Landmarks. They brought the total to 404. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 107 

Archeological Research Conducted 

Archeological research was carried out in 22 Service areas. Ma- 
jor projects were started at Grand Portage, Mound City, and Mount 
McKinley. Other projects began or were continued at Hopewell 
Village, Chalmette, and Mesa Verde. The National Geographic 
Society donated another $50,000 for Wetherill Mesa research at 
Mesa Verde. 

Salvage Archeology Widely Supported 

Extensive salvage archeology in reservoir areas continued 
through financial cooperation with other Federal agencies and 
State and local institutions. The Smithsonian Institution, with 
funds from the Service, operated 16 field parties in the Missouri 
River Basin. Under cooperative agreements, 41 other reservoir 
areas were investigated by 27 different institutions. Valuable 
scientific information is constantly being gathered by projects in 
the National Park Service areas and salvage areas. This is proved 
by the receipt of 91 research reports on such projects. 

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION SET RECORD 

The construction program exceeded that of any previous year. 

The Service has plans for 2,343 construction projects totaling 
more than $152 million. These include recreational facilities in the 
Upper Colorado River Basin Reservoir areas. An additional $2 
million was programed for exhibits, interpretive devices, rehabili- 
tation projects, and advanced planning. The Service managed 
332 projects totaling $7,936,000 under the Public Works Accelera- 
tion Act in 42 counties or election districts in 21 States, Puerto 
Rico, and the Virgin Islands. They were in 35 parks, monuments, 
or recreation areas administered by the National Park Service. 

The close of fiscal 1963 marked the end of a most successful 
construction effort of the Office of Design and Construction. At 
that time, more than 90 percent of all programed projects either 
had been completed or were under construction. Those projects 
programed, but not underway at that time, were delayed because 
of unforeseen exigencies such as land acquisition, archeological 
research, and master plan preparation and approval. 

Planning was completed for projects programed for construction 
during fiscal 1964. Emphasis was on providing more visitor facil- 
ities in established and newly acquired areas. Some of the more sig- 



108 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

nificant projects will provide new or additional facilities to visitor 
developments in Blue Ridge Parkway, Dinosaur, Wind Cave, Grand 
Teton, Yellowstone, Big Bend, Saguaro, Zion, Death Valley, Lava 
Beds, and Sequoia-Kings Canyon ; initial development of recently 
established areas as Fort Davis, Whiskeytown, and Cape Cod 
National Seashore; and complete programed development in a 
single year of such areas as Fort Raleigh, Gila Cliff Dwellings, 
Glacier Bay, Sitka, and Hamilton Grange. Continuation of long- 
range construction projects, such as archeological surveys, excava- 
tion, and ruins stabilization in Mesa Verde and dune and beach 
stabilization at Cape Hatteras National Seashore, are also 
contemplated. 

Architectural Appeal Stressed 

Completion of the Petrified Forest Community by the inter- 
nationally known architects, Neutra and Alexander, is an example 
of outstanding environmental architecture. Faithful adherence to 
authenticity characterizes the continuing and most satisfactory 
restoration of buildings in Independence Square. The substantial 
contributions of individuals, universities, and municipalities in 
money, facilities, and drawings has increased the accomplishments 
of the Historic American Building Survey and the resulting 
archival material. 

The prototype Wisconsin Catalog of historic buildings, designed 
for visual understanding and of broad interest to both the scholar 
and the lay public, approached its final stage. Interest by States 
and universities could result in a complete 50-State series. 

Division of Construction Created 

The Division of Construction, responsible for construction poli- 
cies and contract administration, was created late in the year and 
is expected to play an important role in the National Park Service. 

Engineering 

The Division of Engineering supervised more than 1,600 
projects, totaling $41,730,300, in 168 areas in 40 States, the Virgin 
Islands, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. 

Of particular significance was participation with the Federal 
Aviation Agency in constructing public airports in the vicinity of 
Yellowstone National Park and Grand Canyon National Park 
(South Rim). Both airports will become operable during 1964 
and will permit scheduled airline service to the parks. They also 
will aid in administration and protection of the areas. A survey 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



109 



was being conducted to determine Service requirements for similar 
facilities in or near other areas it administers. 

Development of recreation facilities at reservoirs in the Upper 
Colorado River Basin continued. Visitor facilities, such as camp- 
grounds, picnic grounds, marinas, and boat-launching ramps and 
utilities systems, are included in the present construction program 
of 45 projects totaling more than $1,980,181 at Crawford, Flaming 
Gorge, Glen Canyon, Paonia, Steinaker, and Navajo Reservoir 
Recreation Areas. 

Provision of visitor facilities, including construction of camp- 
grounds and picnic areas, was stressed. Underway were 376 
projects, totaling more than $12 million in 69 areas in 31 States. 
They will provide more than 9,000 new campground sites, approxi- 
mately 2,400 picnic area sites, and the rehabilitation of 945 camp- 
ground sites. Included in this total were 96 roads and trails proj- 
ects, 108 utilities projects, and 27 miscellaneous projects to serve 
these visitor facilities. In addition to roads and trails projects to 
provide access to campgrounds and picnic areas, 440 roads and 



Visitor facilities, including boat-launching ramps and marinas, are part of the construction 
program of 45 projects. Water skiing is a popular water sport on Lake Powell now 
filling above Glen Canyon Dam in the desert country of Utah and northern Arizona. 




110 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

trails projects, totaling more than $13,104,243, were scheduled for 
construction in 108 national parks, national monuments, and na- 
tional recreation areas in 35 States. Storm damage repairs to 
dunes and beaches in Cape Hatteras National Seashore, and repairs 
to flood-damaged trails in Sequoia-Kings Canyon were also made. 

The Service scheduled 509 projects totaling more than $8,225,056 
for miscellaneous construction items in 168 parks, monuments, and 
recreation areas in 40 States. 

More than 300 utilities construction projects totaling $8,527,873 
in 114 national park areas, were underway or being readied. 

Conversion of National Park Service radio systems to narrow 
band frequencies was completed or was underway at 15 parks, 
parkways, monuments, and the National Capital Region. Instal- 
lation of new radio systems was completed or started at nine parks 
and monuments. Commercial electric powerlines were extended 
to supply power to the following : Colorado, Jewel Cave, Theodore 
Roosevelt, Capulin Mountain, Great Sand Dunes, Hovenweep^ 
Death Valley, Mount Rainier, and Olympic. Construction of a com- 
mercial powerline into Death Valley National Monument culmi- 
nated many years of negotiations. 

Landscape Architecture Reaches Many Areas 

A $16 million contract authorization for landscaping was dis- 
tributed as follows : Baltimore- Washington Parkway, $166,100 
Blue Ridge Parkway, $6,604,300; Colonial Parkway, $343,200 
Foothills Parkway, $86,700 ; George Washington Memorial Park- 
way, $1,480,500; Natchez Trace Parkway, $4,185,400; Rock Creek 
and Potomac Parkways, $2,933,800; and advance planning, 
$200,000. 

Fifteen major projects totaling $10,900,000 were completed 
They included 45 miles of paving, 29 miles of grading, 12 gradt 
separations and bridges, and 1 tunnel. On the Blue Ridge Park- 
way, a 20-mile section was opened from Beech Gap to Balsam Gap 
where the parkway road reaches its highest elevation, 6,050 feet 
at Richland Balsam. Its opening provides continuous travel wesi 
of Asheville from Pisgah Inn through Wagon Road Gap 60 mile* 
to the southern terminus at Great Smoky Mountains Nationa 
Park. 

Thirty-nine contracts totaling approximately $25 million wen 
in progress under the Bureau of Public Roads. They included 5! 
miles of paving, 63 miles of grading and base course work, 4! 
bridges and grade separations, 8 tunnels, and other road-improve 
ment work. About $4,874,000 worth of construction was concen 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



111 




Fifteen major parkway contracts were completed durins fiscal year 1963, including 
paving of roads, grading, and construction of bridges and road separations. This bridge 
construction on the Blue Ridge Parkway was among those just completed. 



trated on the final link of the Blue Ridge Parkway in Virginia 
around the city of Roanoke, and $6,310,000 on the sections west of 
Asheville between Pisgah Inn and U.S. Highway 25. Both sec- 
tions are expected to be ready for the 1965 travel season. Work 
started on 41/2 miles of the 11-mile section around Asheville. The 
Asheville gap and the 5!^ miles around Grandfather Mountain, 
for which right-of-way has not been acquired, are the only stretches 
of the 469-mile parkway not yet started. Reports prepared by 
the Bureau of Public Roads and the National Park Service were 
completed for the Great River Road in Iowa and for Parts I and II 
in Minnesota, containing recommendations for land acquisition, 
scenic easement, and control of access. Studies for similar reports 
were underway in Arkansas, Wisconsin, and Illinois. 

Parkways Improved 

The Branch of Parkways, in collaboration with the Bureau of 
Public Roads, continued studies on several proposed national park- 
ways: 

Blue Ridge Extension into North Carolina and Georgia (190 
miles). — A favorable report was prepared and submitted to Con- 
gress by the Departments of Interior and Commerce. 



112 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Allegheny Parkway (550 miles), Maryland, West Virginia, Vir- 
ginia, and Kentucky. — Field studies started. The report is sched- 
uled for completion in fiscal 1964. 

New River Parkway (99 miles), West Virginia. — Field studies 
nearly completed and the report to the Area Redevelopment Ad- 
ministration is in preparation. 

George Washington Country Parkway (184 miles), Mount Ver- 
non to Yorktown, Va. — Field studies continued. 

About $6,850,000 of roadwork was contracted for. 

Most of the 75 miles of roadwork completed was reconstruction 
of existing routes. Principal jobs completed were at Glacier, 
Grand Canyon, Crater Lake, and Mount McKinley. One outstand- 
ing section of new road was built as the through scenic highway 
at Capitol Reef. 

Master Plan Coordination Developed 

A new concept, the "Package Master Plan," was adopted. It 
combines into one document all narrative and graphic material 
necessary to assure continuity in managing and developing a park. 
This system involves the simultaneous study by a team of men ori- 
ented and experienced in master plan concepts. They prepare this 
document in the park in conjunction with the park staff. 

This method will help bring master plans up to date and keep 
them current. Following adoption of the system in fiscal 1963, 
five complete master plans were submitted and approved, while 
numerous others were under preparation. Among those com- 
pleted are three for new parks so public use facilities can be pro- 
vided soon after the areas have been established. These include 
Cape Cod, Bents Old Fort, and Fort Davis. In preparation are 
those for Hamilton Grange, Lincoln Boyhood, Padre Island, Point 
Reyes, Sagamore Hill, and Theodore Roosevelt Birthplace. 



PLANNING PROGRAM ACTIVE 

The planning program seeks the selection for preservation — 
while still available — of those outstanding scenic, scientific, his- 
toric, and recreation areas which are of national significance so 
that park needs may be fulfilled. This program is urgent because 
the cost of the most desirable areas is rapidly increasing and the 
opportunities to preserve the best remaining areas are diminishing 
as such areas are taken for industrial, commercial, residential, and 
other forms of development. 






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Reports were completed on comprehensive planning studies of 16 major areas suggested 
for addition in the National Park System, including Big Horn Canyon, Montana-Wyoming. 



fte* 



Significant planning progress was made during the year. The 
extensive planning work required to prepare suggestions for legis- 
lative consideration continued on 37 proposed projects. Reports 
were completed on the comprehensive planning studies of 16 major 
areas suggested for addition to the National Park System. Among 
these were Bighorn Canyon, Mont.-Wyo. ; Buffalo River, Ark. ; 
Congaree Swamp, S.C. ; Guadalupe Mountains, Tex. ; John Muir 
Home, Calif. ; and Longfellow House, Mass. Field investigations 
of about 30 additional areas were made, in various degrees of detail, 
to determine whether they were of national significance. 

The Department announced its support for establishing the fol- 
lowing : Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Pa. ; 
Canyonlands National Park, Utah ; Fire Island National Seashore, 
N.Y. ; Fort Bowie National Historic Site, Ariz. ; Fort Larned Na- 
tional Historic Site, Kans. ; Fort Union Trading Post National His- 
toric Site, N. Dak.-Mont. ; Great Falls Park (part of George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway) , Va. ; Hubbell Trading Post National 
Historic Site, Ariz. ; Ice Age National Scientific Reserve, Wis. ; 
Johnstown Flood National Memorial, Pa. ; Oregon Dunes National 
Seashore, Oreg. ; Ozark National Rivers, Mo. ; Poverty Point Na- 



114 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

tional Monument, La. ; Prairie National Park, Kans. ; Sleeping Bear 
Dunes National Lakeshore, Mich. ; and Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trin- 
ity National Recreation Area, Calif. 

In addition, Congress studied establishment of the Boston Na- 
tional Historic Sites, Mass.; Channel Islands National Seashore, 
Calif. ; Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Md. ; 
Great Basin National Park, Nev. ; Indiana Dunes National Lake- 
shore, Ind. ; Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore, Mich. ; Saint- 
Gaudens National Historic Site, N.H. ; Tocks Island National Rec- 
reation Area, N. J.-Pa. ; and Valle Grande-Bandelier National Park, 
N. Mex. 

LANDS ACQUIRED FOR PUBLIC USE 

Congress appropriated $13,622,000 in fiscal 1963 for purchase 
of privately owned lands urgently required for recreation, con- 
servation, development, and construction purposes in 24 long- 
established areas and in 7 newly authorized national park areas 
to provide public areas for America. 

Significant donations of lands and money helped in acquiring 
land in 15 areas. One donation was for $500,000. This will be 
used to purchase lands in the Virgin Islands National Park. Ex- 
changes of private lands for Federal lands benefited five areas, and 
transfers of Federal lands from other Government agencies helped 
add land to six areas. 

Added to the National Park System by various means were 
53,919.41 acres of land and water. Through boundary revisions, 
4,196.92 acres were excluded, resulting in a net gain of 49,722.49 
acres. Most of the excluded acreage reverted to the public domain. 

Accessions were as follows : Purchased with appropriated funds, 
4,533.98 acres; donated, 24,815.17 acres; transferred, 19,710.00 
acres ; and exchanged, 4,860.26 acres. 

Remaining were 673,400 acres of non-Federal lands and waters 
within national park areas. Such non-Federal holdings continued 
as an administrative handicap and prevented complete conserva- 
tion and full utilization of adjoining Federal lands for public park 
purposes. 

A land-acquisition program started at the new Point Reyes Na- 
tional Seashore, Calif., and land acquisition programs progressed 
at other recently authorized areas : Fort Smith National Historic 
Site, Ark.; Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial, Ind.; Mockley 
Point in Maryland, across the Potomac from Mount Vernon; 
Minute Man National Historical Park, Mass. ; and Cape Cod Na- 
tional Seashore, Mass. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 115 

Land-purchase programs were underway at five Civil War sites 
to consolidate Federal holdings in time for centennial celebrations 
and for permanent preservation of historic scenes. 

At year's end 170 contracts were pending for the purchase of 
lands in 19 areas of the National Park System. When completed, 
they will bring an additional 5,112.48 acres into Federal ownership. 
Also pending for title clearance were the gifts of 4,576 acres of land 
in three areas. 

Boundary Adjustments Made 

During the year, Congress authorized additions of lands at Capu- 
lin Mountain National Monument, N. Mex. ; additions of lands and 
submerged lands at Virgin Islands National Park in the Virgin 
Islands ; additions of lands and name changes at Big Hole National 
Battlefield, Mont., and Petersburg National Battlefield, Va., and 
both additions and deletions of land at Vicksburg National Mili- 
tary Park, Miss. 

Congress also directed that the Edison Laboratory National 
Monument and the Edison Home National Historic Site be com- 
bined into the Edison National Historic Site, N.J. Congress also 
changed Harpers Ferry National Monument, W. Va., to Harpers 
Ferry National Historic Site. 

By Presidential proclamations, 5,361 acres were added to Craters 
of the Moon National Monument, Idaho ; 2,882 acres were added to 
and 3,925 acres deleted from Bandelier National Monument, N. 
Mex. ; and 5,236 acres of public land were added to and 320 acres 
were deleted from the Natural Bridges National Monument, Utah. 

Economic Research 

Economic research during the year focused on measuring the 
impact of proposed parks on the basic economic structure of sur- 
rounding areas. An economic study of the proposed Buffalo Na- 
tional River was made by the University of Arkansas. A similar 
study was made by Michigan State University of the proposed 
Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore. Other completed studies were 
for the proposed Between-the-Lakes National Recreation Area, by 
the Tennessee State Planning Board, and for Northeastern Ver- 
mont, by the University of Vermont. An economic study of a pro- 
posed national park on the island of Kauai, Hawaii, is being con- 
ducted under contract. 

Special Studies Underway 

The National Park Service is cooperating in a significant study 
of the North Cascades region of the State of Washington, being 



116 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 




Glacier Peak in the Wilderness Area of the North Cascades region, in Washington State, 
is a classic example of the serenity of wilderness. 



conducted jointly by the Interior and Agriculture Departments. 
A second important study was being conducted by the Service of 
the Coast Redwoods region of California, made possible by a grant 
from the National Geographic Society. Another special study on 
recreation was being conducted in Hawaii under contract. In ad- 
dition, the Service cooperated in a special Wild Rivers Study by 
the Departments of Agriculture and Interior. 

Long-Range Requirements Studied 

The long-range requirements program entered a new phase dur- 
ing the year with the assignment of a six-man task force to make 
plans for the future course of both the National Park System and 
the National Park Service. The completed long-range plan, ex- 
pected to be released in fiscal 1964, will form the basis for shorter 
range programs to meet constantly changing conditions imposed by 
natural growth and need. 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 117 

The plan will develop long-range objectives and guidelines for the 
management, use, and development of a well-rounded and evenly 
distributed National Park System. 

Such a long-range plan sees as a foremost challenge the impact 
of rapidly increasing public use on units of the National Park 
System. While it took 58 years to reach the one billionth visit, the 
Service estimates that the second billionth will be reached in 11 
years. 

HEAVY PUBLIC DEMAND FOR REPORTS 

Public interest in the National Park System was reflected in an 
unprecedented demand for reports and publications regarding all 
areas administered by the National Park Service. 

Publications and Services Grow 

The National Park Service has a large and varied publication 
program. Three areas of work are involved : informational fold- 
ers, student booklets, and books. In fiscal 1963, the National Park 
Service printed 17,508,000 folders for 175 areas and 70,000 copies 
of 4 general informational folders. Four student booklets were 
added to a library of over 40 such works. Four reference or re- 
search documents were under preparation. 

The public inquiries function of the National Park Service is 
closely alined with the Service's publishing program. Each year 
the number of inquiries for general information increases. In 
fiscal 1963, almost 65,000 inquiries were received by letter, tele- 
phone, or personal visit. More than 90 percent of these requests 
were answered in some way with printed material. 

Audiovisual Services Improved 

More emphasis was placed on the quality of audiovisual program 
materials. Two recording technicians were added to the staff of 
the Branch of Audiovisual Services to improve the fidelity of Serv- 
ice-recorded material. New audiovisual program materials cre- 
ated during the year included production of 11 sound-slide film 
programs for visitor centers and a 16-mm. motion picture film for 
Fort McHenry's new Visitor Center, completion of 8 new cabinet 
installations using captioned slides, and production of 39 recorded 
messages for new audio stations. As a result of the audiovisual 
installations during the past several years, the work of providing 
replacement tapes increased tremendously. 



118 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Efforts to increase interpretive service to visitors from other 
countries continued. Audio messages in six languages were pre- 
pared through the cooperation of the Voice of America for use at 
Congress Hall (Independence National Historical Park) in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

The Branch of Still and Motion Pictures was reorganized. A 
new system was set up for filing and distributing still pictures, mo- 
tion pictures, slides and transparencies. This makes such mate- 
rials more accessible to its users and saves money. 

Plans were made to obtain more photographs from field units 
and regional offices to insure a steady flow of quality material to 
meet the steadily increasing number of requests. 

At year's end, a contract was awarded for production of a Na- 
tional Park Service film for public distribution. 

International Cooperation Increased 

The Division of International Cooperation held conferences on 
park projects with representatives from England, Norway, Den- 
mark, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Katanga, Ghana, East and 
South Africa, India, Thailand, Malaya, the Philippines, New Zea- 
land, and Australia. 

An outstanding event was the First World Conference on Na- 
tional Parks held in Seattle June 30 to July 7, 1962. Field trips in 
connection with the conference were made to Mount Rainier, Olym- 
pic, Yellowstone, Yosemite, and Glacier National Parks. Nearly 
300 delegates from 63 countries participated in the conference. 

During the past year more than 2,000 letters of inquiry from 
abroad were received and were answered by the Division of Inter- 
national Cooperation. The Service estimated that 2,500,000 for- 
eign visitors from 92 countries were received by personal contact 
by staff members of the National Park Service outside the Na- 
tional Capital Parks area. 

Technical assistance projects were undertaken in Rhodesia, Tan- 
ganyika, Kenya, England, and South Africa. Specialized, inserv- 
ice, and on-the-job training was extended to 31 persons from 
Kenya, Uganda, the Congo, South Africa, Nyasaland, Venezuela, 
Argentina, Philippines, Thailand, Israel, Pakistan, Lebanon, and 
Costa Rica. Special programs were arranged for groups of teach- 
ers and educators from 15 different countries. Special schedules 
in National Park Service areas were arranged for photographic, 
radio, and communications teams from Indonesia, Kenya, Japan, 
Austria, and France. 




Jefferson Memorial, and other National Capital Region areas, attracted nearly 7,000,000 
visitors during fiscal year 1963. A new feature was the floodlighting of several of the 
memorials at night. 

NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION CREATED 

Region Six became the "National Capital Region" when the re- 
gional offices of the National Park Service were given geographical 
designations instead of numbers. Construction of a new "home" 
for the National Capital Region offices in East Potomac Park was 



120 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

virtually completed during the fiscal year, providing a central site 
to unify activities of the region. Construction of the Park Police 
Headquarters wing to the Operations Building started and was 
expected to be completed before the end of fiscal 1964. 

Memorials 

Visits reached a record high of nearly 7,100,000, an increase of 
12.7 percent over 1962. Visiting hours at the Jefferson Memorial 
were extended and floodlighting of the memorial at night created 
much favorable comment. 

Recreational Opportunities Increased 

Due to increased public use of recreational facilities in the park 
system, the maintenance force conditioned and placed into use a 
record number of athletic fields. Several additional recreational 
programs, such as track meets, were scheduled. Considerable 
work was undertaken to condition the grounds of the new District 
of Columbia Stadium and develop practice football fields. 

Fifty picnic sites at Fort Washington and 60 sites at Fort Hunt 
were completed and opened. Development of 200 additional picnic 
areas at Turkey Run Recreational Area, 50 at Greenbelt Park, and 
220 at Carderock Recreational Center started. Sixty new picnic 
sites neared completion at Prince William Forest Park ; others were 
improved. 

Additional park facilities were provided and the channel dredged 
for a boat-launching ramp at Daingerfield Island Marina. A boat- 
launching site was opened at Gravelly Point on the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Parkway. 

The Potomac Park Motor Court was closed December 31, 1962, 
because of sewer construction and other factors, thus making the 
need for increased camping facilities in the National Capital Re- 
gion more evident than ever. At Prince William Forest Park, 
construction of 120 new fully equipped family tent campsites was 
virtually completed. Plans were laid for constructing a trailer 
village in the park. This facility should be ready for use by the 
beginning of the 1964 camping season. Work started on 50 new 
tent campsites at Greenbelt Park. Early completion was planned. 
Additional sites will be developed if requirements increase. 

Park Police Enlarged 

The authorization of 31 new positions on the U.S. Park Police 
Force and retirement of several experienced men necessitated an 
accelerated recruitment and training program. Specialized train- 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 



121 



ing received by supervisors and trainees contributed greatly to a 
higher level of performance and effectiveness of the protective 
forces. 

Proposed Memorials 

Designs and locations of the Taras Shevchenko Memorial and the 
Mary McLeod Bethune Memorial, authorized by Congress for loca- 
tion in the park system, were approved. The Boy Scout Memorial 
on the grounds south of the White House neared completion. A 
contract was let for constructing the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial 
on Roosevelt Island. 



ADMINISTRATION 

The following is a comparison of the 1963 appropriations with 
those for 1962 : 



Appropriation item 


1962 
fiscal year 


1963 
fiscal year 


Increase 


Service appropriations: 


$22, 548, 851 

18, 094, 000 

1, 581, 000 

37, 976, 000 

30, 000, 000 


$25, 383, 304 

20, 578, 550 

2, 055, 200 

45, 775, 500 

27, 000, 000 


$2, 834, 453 


Maintenance and rehabilitation of physical facil- 


2, 484, 550 




474, 200 




7, 799, 500 


Construction (liquidation of contract authoriza- 
tion) 


—3, 000, 000 








110, 199, 851 
4, 000, 000 


120, 792, 554 
7, 000, 000 


10, 592, 703 


Construction (amount by which roads and trails 
and parkways contract authorization exceeded 


3, 000, 000 






Total new obligational authority Service 


114, 199, 851 
8, 346, 416 


127, 792, 554 
16, 220, 644 


13, 592, 703 




7, 874, 228 






Grand total, new obligational authority 


122, 546, 267 


144, 013, 198 


21,466,931 



Of the total increase for fiscal 1963, $996,000 was for increased 
salary costs as authorized by the Congress; $1,615,000 was for a 
share of the cost of constructing airports in the vicinity of Grand 
Canyon and Yellowstone National Parks; $5 million for starting 
land acquisition for Point Reyes National Seashore, Calif. ; and 
$7,976,000 for various projects under the Accelerated Public Works 
program. The remainder, $5,879,931, was for strengthening the 
various Service programs, including Mission 66 developments. 

Financial Management Improved 

A study was made during the year of the accounting and payroll 
operations at Mount Rainier and Olympic National Parks, Wash., 
to determine whether such functions should be transferred to the 



122 ANNUAL REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR 

Western Regional Office in San Francisco, Calif. On the basis of the 
study findings, the Service is planning to abolish these two fielc 
finance offices during fiscal 1964. This will reduce the number o: 
field finance offices to 20 with an annual savings of approximately 
$18,000. At the start of the financial management improvemen - 
program in 1954, there were 46 field finance offices. 

A new financial management system to serve the three fiek 
Design and Construction Offices was developed during the year anc 
installed on a pilot basis in the Western Office in San Francisco 
Calif. The major feature of the system is a new chart of cost ac 
counts designed to meet specific needs. Other features includ< 
elimination of certain duplications of effort that had evolved ovei 
a period of time, the streamlining of fiscal document review, anc 
more meaningful financial reporting to management. The systen 
will be installed in the Eastern Office of Design and Construction 
Philadelphia, and the National Capital Office of Design and Con 
struction, Washington, D.C., during fiscal 1964. 

During the year a task force study was made of the Service'} 
cost accounting classifications, other than those for the Design an( 
Construction Field Office operations, in the light of managemen 
needs for cost data. As a result, the chart of cost accounts was 
modified, effective at the beginning of fiscal 1964, eliminating an( 
combining many of the classifications with a net reduction of abou' 
47 percent in the number of cost accounts comprising the chart 
This modification will bring about better use of manpower and wil 
provide more meaningful cost data to management. 

Management Appraisal Program Approved 

A management appraisal program was approved and shouk 
help assure top management of the effective and proper use o: 
delegated authority, manpower and funds, and the efficiency anc 
coordination of all activities. A major periodic management re 
view is to be conducted in each regional office at least once even 
2 years and of every park in the region at least once every 3 years 
Thus, over a 3-year period each park will have been appraised 
The management appraisal program is a vital tool in the manage 
ment of the Service and should produce significant economies ii 
manpower and fund utilization. 

Personnel and Employment Programs Advanced 

Fiscal 1963 was of considerable significance in the training field 
The Branch of Employee Development and Training, in the Divi 
sion of Personnel, conducted 1-week supervisory training course* 
for a total of 150 first-line supervisors in 4 of our 6 regions. Thes< 



NATIONAL PARK SERVICE 123 

courses were unique in that this was a new training area for the 
Washington Office (previous management training has been con- 
ducted at upper management levels) ; and one-half the participants 
in each course were "blue-collar" supervisors. The coaching phase 
of the Service's Management Development Program started. A 
booklet, "A Plan for the Man," was distributed to all managerial 
employees. The goal to be attained with the use of guidance, pre- 
sented in the booklet is the preparation of an individualized de- 
velopment plan, mutually agreed upon by the supervisor and his 
subordinate, for each service employee in a leadership position. 

Increased attention was devoted to the equal employment oppor- 
tunity program and to the employment of women in types of posi- 
tions for which they are particularly suited, such as park guide and 
park interpretive positions. 

Safety Improvements Noted 

Substantial improvements in most of the 20 categories of the 
accident record continued. The significance of this contribution 
to good management and efficiency is that this accomplishment was 
made during a period of recordbreaking visitor use and a tremen- 
dous increase in variety of activities in the Service programs. 



?Tu. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1964 O - 723-105 



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